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  • Author or Editor: Peter N. Thompson x
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Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in determining the site, lateralization, and extent of extruded intervertebral disk material (EIDM), compared with surgical findings, in Dachshunds with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion (TLIDE).

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Sample Population—16 Dachshunds with clinical signs of intervertebral disk disease.

Procedures—Preoperative T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) MRI measurements and description of the location of EIDM were compared with intraoperative measurements and determination of the EIDM position.

Results—The T12-13 intervertebral disk space was the most frequent site of EIDM (6/16 dogs). The EIDM lateralized with equal frequency to the left and right sides; no central extrusions were seen. There was moderate to substantial agreement (kappa, 0.59) between MRI and surgical findings for evaluation of the craniocaudal distribution of the EIDM. For measurement of the length of EIDM, the T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and STIR sequences had a mean error of −1.15, −0.38, and −1.93 mm, respectively; concordance correlation coefficients were 0.666, 0.904, and 0.458, respectively. Mean absolute errors were 2.54, 1.35, and 2.90 mm, respectively; these values did not differ significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the thoracolumbar vertebral column of Dachshunds with clinical signs of intervertebral disk disease, MRI is a valuable technique for determining location and craniocaudal length of EIDM. Compared with T1-weighted and STIR images, T2-weighted images appeared to be more accurate and precise and are potentially more reliable for determination of the length of EIDM in those dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus infection.

Procedures—All puppies received supportive care. Serum CRP concentration was measured at the time of admission, approximately every 10 to 12 hours for the first 48 hours, and then every 24 hours until discharge from the hospital or death. Associations between outcome and CRP concentration at various time points or changes in CRP concentration over time were assessed via multiple logistic regression. Associations of CRP concentration with survival time and duration of hospitalization among survivors were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Use of CRP concentration to predict outcome was evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

Results—Serum CRP concentrations at admission and 12 and 24 hours later were positively associated with odds of death, and CRP concentrations at 12 and 24 hours after admission were negatively associated with survival time for puppies. Among survivors, duration of hospitalization was positively associated with CRP concentrations at 12, 24, and 36 hours after admission. Sensitivity and specificity of CRP concentration to differentiate between survivors and nonsurvivors at 24 hours after admission were 86.7% and 78.7%, respectively (considered moderately accurate).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although serum CRP concentration was associated with outcome in puppies with canine parvovirus enteritis, it did not prove to be a good predictor of outcome when used alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the safety and efficacy of cystoscopic-guided scissor transection of ectopic ureters (CST-EU) in female dogs.


8 incontinent female dogs with intramural ectopic ureters.


For this retrospective case series, data were collected from medical records of dogs that underwent CST-EU to relocate the ectopic ureteral orifice to an anatomically normal trigonal location between June 2011 and December 2020. Outcome after hospital discharge was determined using owner telephone questionnaires.


Ectopic ureters were bilateral in 4 of the 8 dogs, and all dogs had other urogenital tract anomalies. Owner questionnaire follow-up was available for 7 dogs, and results indicated 6 dogs had improved urinary continence immediately following the procedure. At the last follow-up (44 to 3,384 days after CST-EU), 3 of the 7 dogs were completely continent with CST-EU alone, 3 others became continent or were markedly improved with the addition of medications for urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence, and 1 required ureteroneocystostomy, colposuspension, and an artificial urethral sphincter to become fully continent. Owners of 5 of the 7 dogs reported that they considered the outcome of CST-EU as good to excellent, and all owners reported that they would consider having CST-EU performed again should they have another incontinent dog. Complications were minor, and only 3 dogs showed transient lower urinary tract signs after CST-EU.


Results indicated CST-EU could provide a safe, effective, minimally invasive alternative in the absence of laser technology for the treatment of intramural ectopic ureters in female dogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association