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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure changes in regional lung perfusion using CT angiography in mechanically ventilated, anesthetized ponies administered pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) during hypotension and normotension.

ANIMALS

6 ponies for anesthetic 1 and 5 ponies for anesthetic 2.

PROCEDURES

Ponies were anesthetized on 2 separate occasions, mechanically ventilated, and placed in dorsal recumbency within the CT gantry. Pulmonary arterial, right atrial, and facial arterial catheters were placed. During both anesthetics, PiNO was delivered for 60 minutes and then discontinued. Anesthetic 1: hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 70 mmHg) was treated using dobutamine after 30 minutes of PiNO delivery. Following the discontinuation of PiNO, dobutamine administration was discontinued in 3 ponies and was continued in 3 ponies. The lung was imaged at 30, 60, and 105 minutes. Anesthetic 2: hypotension persisted throughout anesthesia. The lung was imaged at 30, 60, and 90 minutes. At all time points, arterial and mixed venous blood samples were analyzed and cardiac output ( Q ˙ t) was measured. Pulmonary perfusion was calculated from CT image analysis.

RESULTS

During PiNO delivery, perfusion to well-ventilated lungs increased if ponies were normotensive, leading to increased arterial oxygenation, reduced alveolar dead space, and reduced alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient. When PiNO was stopped and dobutamine administration continued, alveolar dead space and venous admixture increased, in contrast to when dobutamine and PiNO were both discontinued.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

If PiNO is administered to mechanically ventilated, anesthetized ponies with concurrent hypotension and low Q ˙ t, this must be supported to achieve favorable redistribution of pulmonary perfusion to improve pulmonary gas exchange.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of IM administration of acepromazine on indices of relative renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by means of scintigraphy, as well as the effects on physiologic, hematologic, and serum biochemical variables in anesthetized dogs, compared with effects of administration of saline.

Animals—6 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) or physiologic saline (0.9 NaCl) solution was administered IM 30 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia with thiopentone; anesthesia was maintained with inspired isoflurane for 2.25 hours. Blood gases and circulatory and ventilatory variables were monitored. Renal function was evaluated by scintigraphic measurements of GFR and relative renal blood flow and analyses of serum and urine. Statistical analyses used ANOVA or Friedman ANOVA.

Results—Values of relative renal blood flow and GFR remained high despite low blood pressures. After administration of acepromazine, mean ± SD arterial blood pressure was 66 ± 8 mm Hg during anesthesia; this value was below the threshold (80 mm Hg) for renal autoregulation of GFR. In comparison, mean arterial blood pressure after administration of saline was significantly higher (87 ± 13 mm Hg). However, between treatments, there were no significant differences in GFR, relative renal blood flow, or other indices of renal function.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurements of renal function and blood flow in dogs during anesthesia with thiopentone and isoflurane did not differ significantly between treatments, which suggested that acepromazine protects renal function despite inducing reduction in blood pressure, compared with effects of administration of saline. ( Am J Vet Res 2003; 64:590–598)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure changes in pulmonary perfusion during pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) delivery in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency.

ANIMALS

6 adult ponies.

PROCEDURES

Ponies were anesthetized, positioned in dorsal recumbency in a CT gantry, and allowed to breathe spontaneously. Pulmonary artery, right atrial, and facial artery catheters were placed. Analysis time points were baseline, after 30 minutes of PiNO, and 30 minutes after discontinuation of PiNO. At each time point, iodinated contrast medium was injected, and CT angiography was used to measure pulmonary perfusion. Thermodilution was used to measure cardiac output, and arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed. Analyses were repeated while ponies were mechanically ventilated.

RESULTS

During PiNO delivery, perfusion to aerated lung regions increased, perfusion to atelectatic lung regions decreased, arterial partial pressure of oxygen increased, and venous admixture and the alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen decreased. Changes in regional perfusion during PiNO delivery were more pronounced when ponies were spontaneously breathing than when they were mechanically ventilated.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In anesthetized, dorsally recumbent ponies, PiNO delivery resulted in redistribution of pulmonary perfusion from dependent, atelectatic lung regions to nondependent aerated lung regions, leading to improvements in oxygenation. PiNO may offer a treatment option for impaired oxygenation induced by recumbency.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate effects of IV administered carprofen on indices of renal function and results of serum biochemical and hematologic analyses in dogs anesthetized with acepromazine-thiopentone-isoflurane that had low blood pressure during anesthesia.

Animals—6 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—A randomized crossover study was conducted, using the following treatments: saline (0.9% NaCl solution)-saline, saline-carprofen, and carprofensaline. Saline (0.08 ml/kg) and carprofen (4 mg/kg) were administered IV. The first treatment was administered 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia and immediately before administration of acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with thiopentone (25 mg/ml, IV) and maintained with inspired isoflurane (2% in oxygen). The second treatment was administered 30 minutes after onset of inhalation anesthesia. Blood gases, circulation, and ventilation were monitored. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), using scintigraphy, serum biochemical analyses, and urinalysis. Hematologic analysis was performed. Statistical analysis was conducted, using ANOVA or Friedman ANOVA.

Results—Values did not differ significantly among the 3 treatments. For all treatments, sedation and anesthesia caused changes in results of serum biochemical and hematologic analyses, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure to 65 mm Hg, an increase of 115 pmol/L in angiotensin II concentration, and an increase of 100 seconds in time required to reach maximum activity counts during scintigraphy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen administered IV before or during anesthesia did not cause detectable significant adverse effects on renal function or results of serum biochemical and hematologic analyses in healthy Beagles with low blood pressure during anesthesia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63: 712–721)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To image the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow by means of scintigraphy, evaluate ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) matching and pulmonary blood shunting (Qs/Qt) by means of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET), and measure arterial oxygenation and plasma endothelin-1 concentrations before, during, and after pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) administration to isoflurane-anesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency.

Animals—3 healthy adult Standardbreds.

Procedures—Nitric oxide was pulsed into the inspired gases in dorsally recumbent isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Assessment of VA/Q matching, Qs/Qt, and Pao 2 content was performed by use of the MIGET, and spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow was measured by perfusion scintigraphy following IV injection of technetium Tc 99m–labeled macroaggregated human albumin before, during, and 30 minutes after cessation of PiNO administration.

Results—During PiNO administration, significant redistribution of blood flow from the dependent regions to the nondependent regions of the lungs was found and was reflected by improvements in VA/Q matching, decreases in Qs/Qt, and increases in Pao 2 content, all of which reverted to baseline values at 30 minutes after PiNO administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of PiNO in anesthetized dorsally recumbent horses resulted in redistribution of pulmonary blood flow from dependent atelectatic lung regions to nondependent aerated lung regions. Because hypoxemia is commonly the result of atelectasis in anesthetized dorsally recumbent horses, the addition of nitric oxide to inhaled gases could be used clinically to alleviate hypoxemia in horses during anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate radiographic distribution of pulmonary edema (PE) in dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and investigate the association between location of radiographic findings and direction of the mitral regurgitant jet (MRJ).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—61 dogs with cardiogenic PE and MR resulting from mitral valve disease (MVD; 51 dogs), dilated cardiomyopathy (9), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (1).

Procedures—Thoracic radiographs of dogs with Doppler echocardiographic evidence of MR were reviewed for location (diffuse, perihilar, or focal) of PE. Also, direction (central or eccentric) of the MRJ, as evaluated by Doppler color flow mapping (DCFM), and distribution (symmetric or asymmetric) of radiographic findings were evaluated.

Results—Diffuse, perihilar, and focal increases in pulmonary opacity were observed in 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), and 43 (70.5%) of 61 dogs, respectively. Radiographic evidence of asymmetric PE in a single lung lobe or 2 ipsilateral lobes was found in 21 dogs, with involvement of only the right caudal lung lobe in 17 dogs. Doppler color flow mapping of the MRJ was available for 46 dogs. Of 31 dogs with a central MRJ, 28 had radiographic findings indicative of symmetric PE. Of 15 dogs with eccentric MRJ, 11 had radiographic evidence of asymmetric PE, and all of these dogs had MVD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with cardiogenic PE, a symmetric radiographic distribution of increased pulmonary opacity was predominantly associated with a central MRJ, whereas an asymmetric radiographic distribution was usually associated with eccentric MRJ, especially in dogs with MVD.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop a method based on CT angiography and the maximum slope model (MSM) to measure regional lung perfusion in anesthetized ponies.

ANIMALS

6 ponies.

PROCEDURES

Anesthetized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency in the CT gantry. Contrast was injected, and the lungs were imaged while ponies were breathing spontaneously and while they were mechanically ventilated. Two observers delineated regions of interest in aerated and atelectatic lung, and perfusion in those regions was calculated with the MSM. Measurements obtained with a computerized method were compared with manual measurements, and computerized measurements were compared with previously reported measurements obtained with microspheres.

RESULTS

Perfusion measurements obtained with the MSM were similar to previously reported values obtained with the microsphere method. While ponies were spontaneously breathing, mean ± SD perfusion for aerated and atelectatic lung regions were 4.0 ± 1.9 and 5.0 ± 1.2 mL/min/g of lung tissue, respectively. During mechanical ventilation, values were 4.6 ± 1.2 and 2.7 ± 0.7 mL/min/g of lung tissue at end expiration and 4.1 ± 0.5 and 2.7 ± 0.6 mL/min/g of lung tissue at peak inspiration. Intraobserver agreement was acceptable, but interobserver agreement was lower. Computerized measurements compared well with manual measurements.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings showed that CT angiography and the MSM could be used to measure regional lung perfusion in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Measurements are repeatable, suggesting that the method could be used to determine efficacy of therapeutic interventions to improve ventilation-perfusion matching and for other studies for which measurement of regional lung perfusion is necessary.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research