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Objective—To determine toxic effects of streptozocin given in combination with a diuresis protocol in dogs and establish whether streptozocin is efficacious in treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, tumor stage and staging tests performed, number of streptozocin treatments, adverse effects, results of biochemical and hematologic monitoring during streptozocin treatment, tumor dimensions, duration of normoglycemia, and date of death, when applicable. Dogs were compared with a historical control group of 15 dogs treated surgically and medically.

Results—58 treatments were administered to the 17 dogs. Only 1 dog developed azotemia. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity increased in some dogs but decreased when treatment was discontinued. Hematologic toxicoses were rare. Vomiting during administration was uncommon but occasionally severe. Two dogs developed diabetes mellitus after receiving 5 doses. Median duration of normoglycemia for 14 dogs with stage-II or -III insulinoma treated with streptozocin was 163 days (95% confidence interval, 16 to 309 days), which was not significantly different from that for the control dogs (90 days; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 426 days). Two dogs had rapid resolution of paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy, and 2 others had measurable reductions in tumor size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that streptozocin can be administered safely to dogs at a dosage of 500 mg/m2, IV, every 3 weeks when combined with a protocol for induction of diuresis and may be efficacious in the treatment of dogs with metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:811–818)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association