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  • Author or Editor: Peter James O'Brien x
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Abstract

Objective

To test the hypothesis that the derangement of myocardial energy homeostasis characteristic of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) of Doberman Pinschers was attributable to deficiency of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme MB relative to CK isoenzyme MM and troponin-T (Tn-T).

Animals

9 Doberman Pinschers with advanced congestive heart failure attributable to IDCM and 9 mixed-breed dogs without cardiac disease (controls).

Procedure

Myocardial myofibrillar CK-MM, mitochondrial CK, and cytosolic CK-MB activities were determined in comparison with the concentration of cardiac-specific, myofibrillar protein Tn-T. Myocardial biopsy specimens were obtained after euthanasia and were ultrafrozen. Isoenzymes of CK were separated eloctrophoretically, and their activity was determined, using a coupled-enzyme, kinetic, fluorescent assay and densitometry. Troponin-T content was determined by immunoassay.

Results

Myofibrillar CK-MM and mitochondrial CK activities and Tn-T content were 25% lower in the dogs with IDCM than in controls, whereas cytosolic CK-MB activity was 50% lower.

Conclusion

Deficiency of CK-MB activity is a component of and may have a central role in the energy deficiency characteristic of failing myocardium in IDCM of Doberman Pinschers. A side-product of this study was the observation that, in dogs, CK-MB activity and Tn-T content of myocardium are sufficiently high to be candidate serum markers for active cardiac injury. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:11–16)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

To test the hypothesis that the mutation associated with porcine stress syndrome (pss; malignant hyperthermia) was present in a large proportion of North American and English swine, a simple and rapid laboratory protocol was used for cost-effective, large-scale diagnosis of susceptibility to pss. This pss test was applied to 10,245 breeding swine of various breeds from 129 farms in the United States, Canada, and England. Approximately 1 of 5 swine was a heterozygous carrier of the pss mutation, with approximately 1% being homozygotes. Prevalence of the pss mutation was 97% for 58 Pietrain, 35% for 1,962 Landrace, 15% for 718 Duroc, 19% for 720 Large White, 14% for 496 Hampshire, 19% for 1,727 Yorkshire, and 16% for 3,446 crossbred swine. The pss gene frequencies for these breeds were 0.72, 0.19, 0.08, 0.10, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.09, respectively. In addition to these breeds, we have identified the pss mutation in Poland China and Berkshire breeds. These gene frequencies were 30 to 75% lower in Canadian swine than in US swine, with the exception of Yorkshires, for which the gene frequency was threefold higher in Canadian swine. English swine were similarly, or more so, affected than were US swine. Accuracy was estimated at > 99%. Cost to perform the test was < $20/ animal. Depending on the perceived net balance of deleterious and beneficial effects of the mutation, the pss test could be used to eradicate the pss mutation from herds, or for controlled expression of the mutation.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Recent studies indicate that in animals with marked cardiac hypertrophy, there is depressed function of Ca2+ sequestration by myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum (sr) because of down regulation of the Ca2+-ATPase gene. However, in several animal models we have observed enhancement of myocardial Ca2+ sequestration in response to chronic cardiac stimulation. We tested the hypothesis that in animals with mild cardiac hypertrophy, there is enhanced Ca2+-cycling activity by the sr Ca2+ pump and Ca2+-release channel. Because creatine kinase activity is consistently decreased in cardiomyopathy, we also determined whether enhanced Ca2+ cycling was accompanied by down regulation or inhibition of the creatine kinase system. Mild cardiac hypertrophy was induced by volume overload; 2% salt was added to the diet of 2-week-old turkey poults for 4 weeks.

Compared with age-matched controls, volume overload resulted in 14.3% increase in heart weight and 21.5% increase in heart-to-body weight ratios. The hypertrophied heart had approximately 20% increased activities of the sr Ca2+ pump and the sr Ca2+ channel. Net Ca2+ transport was increased by 16.5%. Compared with controls and in contrast to several other myocardial enzymes, creatine kinase activity was diminished in the hypertrophied hearts by 23% and creatine content was decreased by 8%. Differences between groups were not detected for lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase.

We concluded that an early adaptation of the myocardium undergoing hypertrophy in compensatory response to functional overload is an enhancement of Ca2+ cycling activity by the Ca2+ pump and Ca2+ channel of the sr. In contrast to late-stage hypertrophy, there is no evidence for down regulation of the Ca2+-ATPase gene. However, creatine kinase activity and creatine content are diminished by mild cardiac hypertrophy.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

We tested the hypothesis that lymphocytes from swine with susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (mh) had calcium extrusion activity higher than unaffected swine. Cytoplasmic concentration of ionized calcium was determined by use of dual emission spectrofluorometry and measurement of the ratio of free to calcium-bound form of the fluorescent calcium dye indo-1. Net calcium accumulation and unidirectional calcium extrusion rate were dependent on intracellular calcium concentration. Calcium extrusion from calcium-loaded lymphocytes was monitored while calcium influx was inhibited by suspending the cells in calcium-free medium with a calcium chelator. Net calcium accumulation of untreated lymphocytes was monitored in calcium-replete medium. A novel method of calculation of ionized calcium was used. This method confirmed our previous findings of lower ionized calcium concentration (86 ± 40 and 370 ± 216 nmol/L; P < 0.01) and slower rates of calcium accumulation 39 ± 16 and 127 ± 52 nmol/L/min) in untreated lymphocytes from mh-susceptible swine compared with controls. These changes were attributable to calcium extrusion activity two- to three-fold higher in lymphocytes of mh-susceptible swine (154 ± 36 and 408 ± 47 nmol/L/min at 175 nmol/L; 972 ± 111 and 1,690 ± 505 nmol/L/min at 425 nmol/L). These data were compatible with our model of higher calcium extrusion activity being a compensatory adaptation of mh-susceptible swine lymphocytes to their hypersensitivity to stimuli that increase cytoplasmic calcium concentration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Characteristic alterations in the serum and urine biochemical profiles of Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure (chf) resulting from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were determined. We compared these alterations with those observed in 2 other models of chf: rate overload induced by rapid ventricular pacing in dogs, and biventricular hypertrophy and dilatation induced in turkey poults by furazolidone toxicosis. Serum and urine biochemical changes in both models of chf in dogs were mild to moderate in degree, and were moderately consistent. They could be attributed to secondary neurohumoral, hepatic, and renal effects of heart failure. The most marked and consistent changes observed were mildly decreased anion gap that developed, in part, because of decreased serum sodium concentration, moderately increased catecholamine concentrations, moderate lactaciduria, hyposthenuria, and mildly increased urea concentrations and liver enzyme activities. In birds with furazolidone cardiomyopathy, we observed mild increases in serum urate concentration, liver and muscle enzyme activities, but moderately increased sodium concentration with decreased chloride concentration. In the pacing and furazolidone models, in which chf was rapidly induced, moderate to marked hypoproteinemia was attributable to decreases in albumin and globulin concentrations. Using the avian model we found that the hypoproteinemia could be largely attributed to blood volume expansion, and to a lesser extent, inanition. Development of hypoalbuminemia during rapid ventricular pacing and furazolidone treatment may contribute to the effects of rate overload or drug toxicity in the pathogenesis of chf, because hypoalbuminemia may contribute to altered hemodynamics and neuroendocrine system activation. Our data indicate that clinical biochemical analysis of serum and urine may be useful for assessing progression of chf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research