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  • Author or Editor: Peter J. Hansen x
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Summary

Addition of alanine and taurine blocked killing of lymphocytes caused by culture at 45 C. The optimal concentration for thermoprotection was achieved at 12.5 mM for l-alanine and 5 mM for taurine. Both d and l forms of alanine provided thermoprotection. The effect of these agents was not simply to increase osmolarity of the culture medium, because NaCl did not provide thermoprotection at comparable concentrations. Alanine and taurine were each tested at concentration of 50 mM for ability to block heat shock-induced killing and developmental retardation of 8- to 16-cell mouse embryos. Both agents enhanced embryo development after exposure to high temperature, though development remained less than that for embryos not exposed to high temperature. In one experiment, for example, 81% of embryos cultured at 38 C advanced in development during culture vs 0% at 42 C, 15% at 42 C with alanine, and 32% at 42 C with taurine. The beneficial effect of alanine at high temperature may have been partly attributable to effects independent of thermoprotection, because development of embryos cultured at 38 C was also improved by alanine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) and proliferation of lymphocytes after stimulation with mitogens were evaluated in vitro at incubation temperatures of 38.5 and 42 C, and after in vivo heat stress of lactating Holstein cows. Cytochrome-c reduction and random migration of pmnl were reduced when cells were preincubated or incubated at 42 C, but high incubation temperature had little or no effect on phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli. Proliferation of lymphocytes was reduced when cells were incubated for 60 hours at 42 C after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, poke-weed mitogen, or concanavalin A. After stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, lymphocytes were most sensitive to high temperature during the first 24 hours of the 60-hour culture period. High incubation temperature had little effect on viability of cells. In vivo heat stress had no significant effect on responses of pmnl in vitro, but the decrease in proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro at high temperature was less when cells were obtained from heat-stressed cows. Total leukocyte counts in blood and somatic cell counts in milk were higher in heat-stressed cows. Results indicate that: exposure to high temperature in vitro can depress responses of pmnl and lymphocytes; apparent adaptive mechanisms induced by in vivo heat stress provide protection from effects of high temperature seen in vitro; and evidence could not be found to support the hypothesis that reduction in immune function is the basis for increases in the incidence of mastitis during the summer.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research