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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



4 dogs, 7.5 to 10 years of age, were presented for evaluation of signs of chronic cervical pain and forelimb lameness secondary to cervical foraminal intervertebral disk protrusion (IVDP). All dogs were refractory to ≥ 2 weeks of conservative management including strict rest and pain management with anti-inflammatory drugs, methocarbamol, and gabapentin.


The MRI findings included left foraminal IVDP at C2-3 causing mild C3 nerve root compression (dog 1), multifocal degenerative disk disease with mild focal left-sided disk protrusion at C6-7 without associated spinal cord or nerve root compression (dog 2), left foraminal C6-7 IVDP with suspected focal spinal cord atrophy or mild compression (dog 3), and right foraminal C6-7 IVDP and multifocal cervical intervertebral disk degeneration with annulus fibrosus protrusion (dog 4).


Ultrasound-guided paravertebral perineural injections with methylprednisolone acetate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) at the C3 nerve root in dog 1 and at the C7 nerve root in the other 3 dogs were performed. Injections were repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to 3 months on the basis of clinical response. None of the dogs had any complications from the procedures. For dogs 1 and 4, there was complete resolution of lameness and signs of cervical pain following perineural injections, and for dog 3, there was complete resolution of lameness and only minimal residual cervical pain. Dog 2 did not have long-lasting improvement.


Findings indicated that ultrasound-guided paravertebral perineural injection can be an effective treatment of cervical foraminal IVDP for some dogs. Additional studies to determine appropriate case selection and better assess the overall success rate and risks associated with this technique are warranted.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To investigate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics of cytarabine delivery as a subcutaneous continuous-rate infusion with the Omnipod system.


6 client-owned dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology were enrolled through the North Carolina State University Veterinary Hospital.


Cytarabine was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/m2/hour as an SC continuous-rate infusion over 8 hours using the Omnipod system. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after initiation of the infusion. Plasma cytarabine concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A nonlinear mixed-effects approach generated population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates.


The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL), average time to Cmax was 7 hours (range, 4 to 8 hours; SD, 1.67 hours), terminal half-life was 1.13 hours (SD, 0.29 hour), and the mean area under the curve was 52,996.82 hours X μg/mL (range, 35,963.67 to 71,848.37 hours X μg/mL; SD, 12,960.90 hours X μg/mL). Cmax concentrations for all dogs were more than 1,000 ng/mL (1.0 μg/mL) at the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-hour time points.


An SC continuous-rate infusion of cytarabine via the Omnipod system is feasible in dogs and was able to achieve a steady-state concentration of more than 1 μg/mL 4 to 10 hours postinitiation of cytarabine and a Cmax of 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL). These are comparable to values reported previously with IV continuous-rate infusion administration in healthy research Beagles and dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research