Objective—To develop a clinically applicable technique for recording cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) following stimulation of the radial and ulnar nerves and establish reference values for radial and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs) in the wings of ducks.
Animals—8 clinically normal adult female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).
Procedures—Radial and ulnar compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) and CDPs were recorded following distal sensory nerve stimulation. The CDPs were recorded from the interarcuate space between the last cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra. Surgical dissection and transection of the brachial plexus in 1 anesthetized duck were performed to identify nerve root location and confirm functional loss of nerve conduction assessed by loss of the CDP.
Results—Radial and ulnar CNAPs and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Median radial SNCV was 38.3 m/s (range, 36.0 to 49.0 m/s), and ulnar SNCV was 35.3 m/s (range, 28.0 to 40.0 m/s). Surgical transection of the brachial plexus resulted in complete loss of the CDP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of radial and ulnar SNCV or CDP is feasible in isoflurane-anesthetized mallard ducks. The CDP accurately reflects sensory nerve conduction through the brachial plexus. Assessment of brachial plexus function in mallard ducks via evaluations of SNCVs and CDPs may have application for diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus, evaluation of neuropathies associated with exposure to toxic chemicals, and assessment of the efficacy of interventions such as brachial plexus nerve blockade.
Objective—To determine the neurologic effects of
reduced intake of phenylalanine and tyrosine in black-haired
Animals—53 specific pathogen-free black domestic
Procedure—Cats were fed purified diets containing
various concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine
for ≤ 9 months. Blood samples were obtained every 2
months for evaluation of serum aromatic amino acid
concentrations. Cats were monitored for changes in
hair color and neurologic or behavioral abnormalities.
Three cats with neurologic deficits underwent clinical
and electrophysiologic investigation; muscle and
nerve biopsy specimens were also obtained from
Results—After 6 months, neurologic and behavioral
abnormalities including vocalization and abnormal
posture and gait were observed in cats that had
received diets containing < 16 g of total aromatic
amino acid/kg of diet. Electrophysiologic data and
results of microscopic examination of muscle and
nerve biopsy specimens from 3 cats with neurologic
signs were consistent with sensory neuropathy with
primary axonal degeneration. Changes in hair color
were detected in cats from all groups receiving < 16
g of phenylalanine plus tyrosine/kg of diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested
that chronic dietary restriction of phenylalanine
and tyrosine in cats may result in a predominantly
sensory neuropathy. In cats, the long-term
nutritional requirement for phenylalanine and tyrosine
appears to be greater for normal neurologic function
than that required in short-term growth experiments.
Official present-day recommendations for dietary
phenylalanine and tyrosine in cats may be insufficient
to support normal long-term neurologic function. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:671–680)
Objective—To determine CSF characteristics associated with intracranial meningiomas in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—56 dogs with intracranial meningiomas.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of intracranial meningioma, in which CSF analysis had been performed, were reviewed. Information concerning total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential nucleated cell counts, RBC counts, and total protein concentration in CSF; seizure history and glucocorticoid administration; and location of meningiomas was recorded.
Results—TNCCs < 5 cells/μL were detected in 41 of 56 (73%) dogs; 5 of 56 (9%) dogs had TNCCs > 50 cells/μL. Analysis of CSF revealed predominantly neutrophilic pleocytosis in < 20% of dogs. There was a significant association between meningioma location (caudal portion of the cranial fossa or middle and rostral portion of the cranial fossae) and increased TNCCs (≥ 5 cells/μL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results were significantly different from those routinely reported in the veterinary literature. Neutrophilic pleocytosis, especially with TNCCs > 50 cells/μL, was not typical in CSF samples from dogs with intracranial meningiomas. Neutrophilic pleocytosis may not be detected in CSF samples from dogs with meningiomas located within the middle or rostral portion of the cranial fossae.
Objective—To test the hypothesis that application of a rope restraint device would result in behavioral, electroencephalographic, and humoral changes consistent with sleep and analgesia in neonatal foals.
Animals—8 healthy neonatal foals.
Procedures—Following acclimatization to experimental conditions, each foal underwent a series of assessments before and during or at the end of a period of restraint via application of a restraint device (soft linen rope). Assessments included measurements of heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and circulating β-endorphin and steroid hormone concentrations and evaluations of mentation and body position (behavior), electroencephalographic patterns, and pain tolerance.
Results—All foals were lively with apparently normal behavior prior to restraint. During application of the restraint device, foals assumed lateral recumbency with relaxed, somnolent behavior. Heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperature uniformly decreased as a result of the procedure. Electroencephalographic recordings (completed for 3 foals only) revealed patterns consistent with slow wave sleep. Plasma ACTH, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione concentrations significantly increased during restraint, compared with prerestraint values. The foals' tolerance to noxious stimuli significantly increased during restraint; however, this was independent of the concentration of circulating β-endorphin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In neonatal foals, the evaluated form of restraint resulted in a decrease in heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperature. Squeeze-induced somnolence may resemble the effects of compression of the fetus in the birth canal and lead to inhibition of voluntary activity. Use of this technique to safely restrain neonatal foals during minor procedures warrants further evaluation.
To evaluate the effects of the chondrodystrophy-associated FGF4L2 retrogene on intervertebral disc (IVD) calcification and vertebral geometry.
22 Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTR) with no FGF4L2 retrogene (n = 7, wild-type dogs), 1 retrogene copy (8, heterozygous dogs), or 2 retrogene copies (7, homozygous dogs).
Computed tomography (CT) scans of the vertebral column were analyzed using computer-aided design (CAD) software. IVD calcification, vertebral column length, and vertebral geometry of the third cervical (C3), 13th thoracic (T13), and first lumbar (L1) vertebrae were compared.
IVD calcification was not found in wild-type dogs. IVD calcification was more frequent in homozygous dogs than heterozygous (P = .008) or wild-type dogs (P < .001) and in heterozygous dogs compared to wild-type dogs (P < .001). Four IVDs were subclinically herniated in 3 dogs (2 homozygous, 1 heterozygous). Calcified IVD had a greater volume and surface area in heterozygous dogs than homozygous dogs. C3 vertebral canal height-to-width ratio was greater in homozygous dogs than heterozygous dogs (P = .044) and wild-type dogs (P = .010).
IVD calcification and vertebral geometry can be analyzed using CAD software. The presence of 1 or 2 FGF4L2 copies in the absence of the FGF4L1 retrogene has an additive effect on the number of calcified IVD and a minor effect on vertebral geometry in NSDTR dogs. Data support the use of FGF4L2 phenotyping to reduce clinical disease in segregating breeds and to monitor the introduction of wild-type alleles into fixed breed populations.
To measure expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma and in extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from plasma for dogs with glioma and dogs with other brain diseases.
Plasma samples from 11 dogs with glioma and 19 control dogs with various other brain diseases.
EVs were isolated from plasma samples by means of ultracentrifugation. Expression of 4 candidate reference miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, and miR-103) and 4 candidate target miRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-155, and miR-342-3p) was quantified with reverse transcription PCR assays. Three software programs were used to select the most suitable reference miRNAs from among the 4 candidate reference miRNAs. Expression of the 4 target miRNAs was then calculated relative to expression of the reference genes in plasma and EVs, and relative expression was compared between dogs with glioma and control dogs with other brain diseases.
The most suitable reference miRNAs were miR-16 for plasma and let-7a for EVs. Relative expression of miR-15b in plasma and in EVs was significantly higher in dogs with glioma than in control dogs. Relative expression of miR-342-3p in EVs was significantly higher in dogs with glioma than in control dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that miR-15b and miR-342-3p have potential as noninvasive biomarkers for differentiating glioma from other intracranial diseases in dogs. However, more extensive analysis of expression in specific glioma subtypes and grades, compared with expression in more defined control populations, will be necessary to assess their clinical relevance.
Objective—To compare clinical features of cryptococcosis among cats and dogs in California, determine whether the distribution of involved tissues differs from distribution reported previously in a study in southeastern Australia, and identify Cryptococcus spp isolated from the study population.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—62 cats and 31 dogs with cryptococcosis.
Procedures—Medical records of cats and dogs with cryptococcosis were reviewed. Information collected included geographic location, species, signalment, and tissues or organs involved. Cryptococcosis was confirmed via serology, cytology, histology, or microbial culture, and molecular typing was performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine significant associations among variables. Other comparisons were evaluated via χ2 or unpaired t tests.
Results—American Cocker Spaniels were overrepresented, compared with other dog breeds. Serum cryptococcal antigen test results were positive in 51 of 53 cats and 15 of 18 dogs tested. Cryptococcus gattii was more commonly detected in cats (7/9 for which species identification was performed), and Cryptococcus neoformans was more commonly detected in dogs (6/8). Six of 7 C gattii isolates from cats were molecular type VGIII. Distribution of involved tissues was different between cats and dogs in California and between populations of the present study and those of the previously reported Australian study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Strains of Cryptococcus spp appeared to have host specificity in dogs and cats. Differences in lesion distribution between geographic locations may reflect strain differences or referral bias. Antigen assays alone may not be sufficient for diagnosis of cryptococcosis in cats and dogs.