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  • Author or Editor: Peter J. Accola x
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Objective—To develop and compare 3 techniques for retrobulbar injection of local anesthetic agents for ocular surgery and analgesia in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—17 dogs (including 9 cadavers).

Procedures—Inferior-temporal palpebral (ITP), perimandibular, and combined superior-inferior peribulbar injection techniques were compared by assessing the distribution of latex after injection into the orbits of 5 canine cadavers; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the distribution of contrast agent after injection in the retrobulbar space of 4 canine cadavers; and assessment of the efficacy and MRI evaluation of the anatomic distribution of injections of a lidocainecontrast agent mixture in 4 anesthetized, nonrecovery dogs. By use of the preferred technique (ITP), the ocular effects of lidocaine anesthesia were evaluated in 4 dogs; during a 2-week period after treatment, dogs underwent ophthalmic examination, Schirmer tear testing (STT), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometry.

Results—Of the 3 techniques, the ITP technique was the preferred method for retrobulbar administration of anesthetic agent in dogs because it was efficacious (pupil dilation and central rotation of the globe achieved in all eyes), easiest to perform, and provided thorough coverage of the intraconal retrobulbar space without complication. During the 2-week follow-up period, the ITP injection did not significantly affect STT, IOP, or Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry values in dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, retrobulbar administration of anesthetic agents via the ITP technique is a potential alternative to systemic administration of neuromuscular blocking agents for ophthalmic surgery and provides the additional benefit of local ocular analgesia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine effects of duration and type of anesthetic on tear production in dogs.

Animals—8 female Beagles.

Procedures—Each dog was randomly allocated into 1 of 4 groups according to a Latin square design to receive anesthesia as follows: 1 hour with isoflurane, 1 hour with desflurane, 4 hours with isoflurane, and 4 hours with desflurane. Each dog was anesthetized with the selected inhalant 4 times during a 4-week period, with at least 5 days separating anesthetic episodes. Aqueous tear production was measured via the Schirmer I tear test at baseline and 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour after induction of anesthesia as well as 2, 3, and 4 hours after induction for the 4-hour groups. Tear production was also measured after the dogs were standing after recovery from anesthesia and 2, 10, and 22 hours after recovery from anesthesia.

Results—Aqueous tear production was significantly reduced in dogs during anesthesia and returned to baseline values immediately after recovery and until 10 hours after anesthesia in all treatment groups. Inhalant type and duration had no significant effect. Neither lateral recumbency nor left versus right eyes had a significant effect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that inhalant anesthetics did not reduce tear production after anesthesia and that longer-duration anesthesia did not cause decreased tear production, compared with shorter-duration anesthesia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the effects of acepromazine maleate and morphine on aqueous tear production before, during, and after sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

Animals—6 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—In a Latin square study design, dogs underwent IM administration of morphine (1 mg/kg), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL/kg), followed by induction and maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane for 30 minutes. The protocol was repeated until all dogs had received all treatments, with a minimum of 7 days between anesthetic episodes. Aqueous tear production was measured via Schirmer tear test I before treatment (baseline); before anesthetic induction; 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after anesthetic induction; immediately once dogs recovered from anesthesia; and 2 and 10 hours after recovery.

Results—Aqueous tear production for all treatments was significantly lower 10, 20, and 30 minutes (but not 5 minutes) after anesthetic induction than at baseline, before anesthetic induction, at recovery, and 2 and 10 hours after recovery. Aqueous tear production was significantly higher after saline solution administration than after morphine administration at the preinduction measurement point and 2 hours after recovery. No other differences were detected among the 3 treatments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aqueous tear production after anesthesia did not differ significantly from baseline values after any treatment following 30 minutes of sevoflurane anesthesia, suggesting premedication with morphine or acepromazine does not contribute to a decrease in lacrimation in these circumstances.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research