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Objective—To evaluate response of euthyroid cats to administration of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH).

Animals—7 healthy cats.

Procedure—Each cat received each of 5 doses of rhTSH (0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.200 mg), IV, at 1-week intervals. Serum concentration of total thyroxine (TT4) and free thyroxine (fT4) was measured immediately before each injection (time 0) and 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after administration of each dose.

Results—Overall TT4 response did not differ significantly among cats when administered doses were ≥ 0.025 mg. Serum TT4 concentrations peaked 6 to 8 hours after administration for all doses ≥ 0.025 mg. For all doses ≥ 0.025 mg, mean ± SEM TT4 concentration at 0, 6, and 8 hours was 33.9 ± 1.7, 101.8 ± 5.9, and 101.5 ± 5.7 nmol/L, respectively. For all doses ≥ 0.025 mg, mean fT4 concentration at 0, 6, and 8 hours was 38.7 ± 2.9, 104.5 ± 7.6, and 100.4 ± 8.0 pmol/L, respectively. At 8 hours, the fT4 response to 0.025 and 0.050 mg was less than the response to 0.100 and 0.200 mg. Adverse reactions after rhTSH administration were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The TSH stimulation test can be performed in cats by IV administration of 0.025 to 0.200 mg of rhTSH and measurement of serum TT4 concentrations at time of injection and 6 or 8 hours later. Clinical validation of the TSH stimulation test would facilitate development of additional tests of thyroid gland function, such as a TSH assay. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:149–152)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine prevalence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) in serum of dogs with clinical signs of hypothyroidism.

Design—Cohort study.

Sample Population—287,948 serum samples from dogs with clinical signs consistent with hypothyroidism.

Procedure—Serum THAA were detected by use of a radiometric assay. Correlation and X 2 analyses were used to determine whether prevalence varied with breed, age, sex, or body weight. Only breeds for which ≥ 50 samples had been submitted were used for analysis of breed prevalence.

Results—Thyroid hormone autoantibodies were detected in 18,135 (6.3%) samples. The 10 breeds with the highest prevalence of THAA were the Pointer, English Setter, English Pointer, Skye Terrier, German Wirehaired Pointer, Old English Sheepdog, Boxer, Maltese, Kuvasz, and Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen. Prevalence was significantly correlated with body weight and was highest in dogs between 2 and 4 years old. Females were significantly more likely to have THAA than were males.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Thyroid hormone autoantibodies may falsely increase measured triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations in dogs; results suggest that T3 concentration may be falsely increased in approximately 57 of 1,000 dogs with hypothyroidism and that T4 concentration may be falsely increased in approximately 17 of 1,000 dogs with hypothyroidism. Results also suggested that dogs of certain breeds were significantly more or less likely to have THAA than were dogs in general. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:466–471)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare effects of short-term administration of a soy diet with those of a soy-free diet on serum thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy adult cats.

Animals—18 healthy adult cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to receive either a soy or soy-free diet for 3 months each in a crossover design. Assays included CBC, serum biochemical profile, thyroid hormone analysis, and measurement of urinary isoflavone concentrations.

Results—Genistein, a major soy isoflavone, was identified in the urine of 10 of 18 cats prior to dietary intervention. Compared with the soy-free diet, cats that received the soy diet had significantly higher total thyroxine (T4) and free T4 (fT4) concentrations, but unchanged total triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. The T3/fT4 ratio was also significantly lower in cats that received the soy diet. Although the magnitudes of the increases were small (8% for T4 and 14% for fT4), these changes resulted in an increased proportion of cats (from 1/18 to 4/18) that had fT4 values greater than the upper limit of the laboratory reference range. There was no significant effect of diet on any other measured parameter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short-term administration of dietary soy has a measurable although modest effect on thyroid hormone homeostasis in cats. Increase in T4 concentration relative to T3 concentration may result from inhibition of 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase or enhanced T3 clearance. Soy is a common dietary component that increases serum T4 concentration in cats. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:586–591)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To assess the diagnostic performance of a benchtop fluorescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer (AIA-360; Tosoh Bioscience Inc) for the measurement of serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.


173 client-owned dogs (20 with hypoadrenocorticism and 153 with nonadrenal illness).


Medical records of all dogs that underwent an ACTH stimulation test between June 2015 and October 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Dogs were excluded if the ACTH stimulation test was performed on the basis of a suspicion of hypercortisolism, serum cortisol concentrations were measured using an analyzer other than the one assessed in the present study, or dogs had received medication known to affect the pituitary-adrenal axis in the 4 weeks 1,2 preceding ACTH stimulation testing. The diagnostic performance of the benchtop analyzer was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios at various cutoff points.


Serum resting cortisol cutoff point concentrations of 0.8 μg/dL (22 nmol/L), 1 μg/dL (28 nmol/L), and 2 μg/dL (55 nmol/L) had a sensitivity of 100%. An optimal serum resting cortisol cutoff point of 0.58 μg/dL (16 nmol/L) had a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 100%, 97%, and 30.6 and 0.0, respectively.


Findings indicated that previously derived cutoff points could be used with excellent sensitivity to exclude hypoadrenocorticism in this population of dogs when serum cortisol concentration was measured with the evaluated benchtop analyzer. An ACTH stimulation test may need to only be performed to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism if resting serum cortisol concentration is ≤ 0.58 μg/dL when measured with the evaluated benchtop analyzer.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether the urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR) could replace the ACTH stimulation test in monitoring effectiveness of mitotane induction treatment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH).


15 dogs with PDH.


All 15 dogs were given an induction dose of mitotane (o, p'-DDD: 35 to 50 mg/kg of body weight/d) for 3 to 14 days. During the induction period, free-catch morning urine samples were collected for determination of UCCR, followed by ACTH stimulation testing, every other day. Treatment response was divided into 3 categories: well-controlled PDH (post-ACTH serum cortisol concentration ≥ 28 nmol/L but ≤ 138 nmol/L), deficient cortisol secretion (post-ACTH serum cortisol concentration < 28 nmol/L), and excess cortisol secretion (post-ACTH serum cortisol concentration > 138 nmol/L).


The linear relation between UCCR and post-ACTH serum cortisol concentration was significant (P < 0.001); however, the prediction intervals surrounding the line were too broad to be clinically useful. The UCCR overlapped among the 3 categories of treatment response. Nevertheless, dogs with PDH receiving mitotane induction treatment and with UCCR > 79 × 10−6 were always classified as having excess cortisol secretion.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

The UCCR failed to predict post-ACTH cortisol concentration during mitotane induction treatment sufficiently close to be a clinically reliable indicator of treatment control. Seemingly, however, UCCR > 79 × 10−6 obtained from a dog with PDH during mitotane induction would indicate inadequate adrenal cortex destruction and the need for continued mitotane induction; UCCR ≤ 79 × 10−6 would be inconclusive. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:258–261)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


In Zimbabwe, ocular squamous cell carcinoma (oscc) was frequently observed in 5 breeding herds of Simmental cattle, a Bos taurus breed originating from Switzerland. In these herds, initial signs of oscc were already noticeable in cattle about 3 years old. Gradually, oscc prevalence increased, and 36 to 53% of cattle over 7 years old had 1 or more tumors. More tumors developed in Simmental cattle with periorbital white skin than in cattle with periorbital pigmented skin. Other breeds of cattle (eg, Friesian) also are partly white-faced and live in Zimbabwe in a comparable environment; yet, oscc prevalence was lower in those breeds.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research