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SUMMARY

The popular urodynamic technique of stressed urethral pressure profilometry used for investigation of genuine stress incontinence in women was adapted and applied to bitches. The aim was to assess the suitability and reproducibility of the technique in the canine species, and to determine whether differences seen in continent and incontinent women were found in bitches.

Resting and stressed simultaneous urethral pressure profiles were obtained for 25 continent and 25 incontinent bitches, the latter diagnosed as having urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. The stressed urethral pressure profiles were produced by ballottement of the abdomen during catheter withdrawal. The degree of stress induced was consistent and had got short-term reproducibility.

Highly significant (P < 0.001) differences in the percentage of negative spikes extending below the resting intravesical pressure were found between continent and incontinent bitches. Significant differences were not observed in the pressure transmission profiles between continent and incontinent bitches; both groups had a gradual decrease in pressure transmission from the bladder neck to the external urethral orifice.

The distance from the start of the urethral pressure profile to the first negative peak (attributable to respiration or ballottement) on the subtracted profile was compared with the radiographic distance that the bladder neck was positioned with respect to the cranial pubic brim, taking body weight and continence status into account. Body weight and continence status did not have significant effect on the relation in either instance. The distance between the start of the urethral pressure profile and the first negative peak induced by respiration was significantly (P < 0.05) related to the bladder neck position with respect to the cranial pubic brim, although it accounted for little of the total variance. Relation between the same variables during stressed urethral pressure profilometry, induced by abdominal ballottement, was not significant.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine bladder neck positional changes between standing and recumbent positions in bitches and whether change is related to continence status or general anesthesia, or both, and to evaluate reproducibility of measurements.

Animals

45 continent animals and 46 incontinent bitches with urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (SMI).

Procedure

Distance between the bladder neck and perineal skin was measured ultrasonographically via the perineum while each dog was conscious in standing and right lateral recumbency and in right lateral recumbency under general anesthesia. Measurements of the bladder neck position obtained in right lateral recumbency under anesthesia were compared with radiographic measurements of the same parameter. Reproducibility of the ultrasonographic measurements of the distance between bladder neck and perineum was assessed on 3 occasions for each position in 50 dogs.

Results

In all dogs, differences in bladder neck position between standing and recumbent conscious-associated positions were not significant. However, caudal bladder neck movement between standing conscious- and recumbent anesthesia-associated positions and between recumbent conscious- and anesthesia-associated positions was significant for all dogs. Incontinent bitches had greater degree of caudal bladder movement during anesthesia. Mean difference in bladder neck positions between recumbent conscious- and recumbent anesthesia-associated positions was 0.24 cm in continent, compared with 0.73 cm in incontinent, bitches. Radiographic measurements were significantly greater than ultrasonographic measurements. Differences between repeated measurements for standing position were not significant, but those for recumbent conscious- and recumbent anesthesia-associated positions were significant.

Conclusions

Additional vesicourethral support mechanisms in continent dogs, are deficient in bitches with SMI, allowing the bladder neck to move further caudad. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:673-679)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of a human bladder tumor antigen test for diagnosis of lower urinary tract malignancies in dogs.

Sample Population—Urine samples from dogs without urinary tract abnormalities (n = 18) and from dogs with lower urinary tract neoplasia (20) or nonmalignant urinary tract disease (16).

Procedure—Test results were compared among groups and among 3 observers. The effects of urine pH and specific gravity, degree of hematuria, and storage temperature and time of urine samples on test results were also assessed.

Results—Test sensitivity and specificity were 90 and 94.4%, respectively, for differentiating dogs with lower urinary tract neoplasia from dogs without abnormalities. However, specificity decreased to 35% for differentiating dogs with neoplasia from dogs with nonmalignant urinary tract disease. In dogs with neoplasia, results were significantly affected by degree of hematuria. However, addition of blood to urine from dogs without hematuria had no significant effect on test results. Although intraobserver variation was significant, urine pH, specific gravity, or storage time or temperature had no significant effect on results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although this bladder tumor antigen test was sensitive for differentiating dogs with malignancies of the lower urinary tract from dogs without urinary tract disease, it was not specific for differentiating dogs with neoplasia from dogs with other lower urinary tract abnormalities. It cannot, therefore, be recommended as a definitive diagnostic aid for the detection of lower urinary tract malignancies in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:370–373)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether the cranial portion of the vagina of dogs is a suitable site for measuring intra-abdominal pressure during cystometry.

Animals

16 bitches (8 sexually intact and 8 spayed).

Procedure

2 types of vaginal catheters were used to measure intra-abdominal pressure changes in anesthetized dogs. Catheters were inserted in the rectum and cranial portion of the vagina.

Results

Intra-abdominal pressure variations were detected with greater magnitude in the rectum than the cranial portion of the vagina, regardless of type of catheter used and reproductive status (sexually intact vs spayed) of the dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The rectum was the better site for measuring intra-abdominal pressure changes in female dogs. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with concomitant measurement of intravesical pressure to determine detrusor pressure during cystometry in female dogs is more reliably detected from the rectum than the cranial portion of the vagina. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1411–1414)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To evaluate accuracy of formulas derived from linear ultrasonographic measurements and used in human beings to assess urinary bladder volume as a method of estimating bladder volume in dogs and to test reproducibility of ultrasonographic measurements of linear bladder dimensions.

Animals

64 live dogs (for bladder volume determination) and 31 fresh canine cadavers (for ultrasonographic assessment of reproducibility of measurements).

Procedure

Maximal length, longitudinal and transverse depth (DL and DT), and width were measured from the maximal longitudinal and transverse images. Bladder volume was estimated, using 6 formulas, and calculated volumes were compared statistically with the actual volume obtained by catheterization, using paired nonparametric tests. Reproducibility of bladder dimensions was investigated by measuring length, DL, DT, and width 3 times from each image of section. Measurements of depth (DL and DT) also were compared.

Results

Calculations of bladder volume from linear dimensions, using a formula described for use in human beings, gave a satisfactory indication of actual bladder volume; the median difference between actual and calculated volumes was only 5 ml. Bladder volume estimations were less accurate when large-volume bladders were measured. Matching between repeated measurements was significant (P < 0.005 for longitudinal bladder length and P < 0.0001 for bladder depth and width). Measurements of DL and DT were significantly (P < 0.01) different, with DL greater than DT.

Conclusions

Ultrasonographic assessment of bladder volume in dogs by application of the formula is sufficiently accurate for most clinical purposes.

Clinical Relevance

Ultrasonography would be a useful method of estimating bladder volume in dogs with severe obstruction or dysfunctional voiding of urine. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:10–15)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Maximal urethral closure pressure, functional profile length, and number of respiratory peaks on the resting urethral pressure profile, expressed as a percentage of those occurring on the bladder pressure recording, were compared at catheter withdrawal speeds of 1 and 3 mm/s in 30 anesthetized bitches.

Significant (P < 0.001) differences were found in maximal urethral closure pressure and percentage of transmission of respiratory peaks between the 2 speeds. Significant difference was not detected in functional profile length.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research