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  • Author or Editor: Peter D. Hanson x
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Objective—To determine cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selectivity, pharmacokinetic properties, and in vivo efficacy of ML-1,785,713 in dogs.

Animals—21 healthy male and female mixed-breed dogs and 24 healthy male Beagles.

Procedure—Selectivity of ML-1,785,713 for inhibiting COX-2 was determined by comparing the potency for inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with that of COX-2 in canine blood. Pharmacokinetic properties were determined after IV (2 mg/kg) and oral (8 mg/kg) administration in female mixed-breed dogs. In vivo efficacy was evaluated in male mixed-breed dogs with urate crystal-induced synovitis. Prophylactic efficacy was evaluated by administering ML-1,785,713 two hours before induction of synovitis whereas therapeutic efficacy was determined by administering ML-1,785,713 one hour after induction of synovitis.

Results—Blood concentrations that resulted in 50% inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity in vitro were 119.1µM and 0.31µM, respectively, and selectivity ratio for inhibiting COX-2 relative to COX-1 was 384. ML-1,785,713 had high oral bioavailability (101%), low systemic clearance (7.7 mL/min/kg), and an elimination half-life of 5.9 hours. ML-1,785,713 was efficacious when administered prophylactically and therapeutically to dogs with urate crystal-induced synovitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ML-1,785,713 is a novel, potent COX-2 inhibitor that is the most selective COX-2 inhibitor described for use in dogs to date. ML-1,785,713 has oral bioavailability and low systemic clearance that is comparable to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is effective after prophylactic and therapeutic administration in attenuating lameness in dogs with urate crystal-induced synovitis. Drugs that specifically inhibit COX-2 and not COX-1 at therapeutic doses may have an improved tolerability profile, compared with nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:503–512)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine pharmacokinetic parameters and variables, firocoxib concentrations in urine and plasma, urine-to-plasma ratios, and the urine depletion profile of firocoxib and to evaluate whether the pharmacokinetic behavior of firocoxib was governed by linear processes after multiple doses of firocoxib were administered IV and orally.

Animals—6 healthy female horses (5 Paint horses and 1 Quarter Horse) in experiment 1 and 12 healthy male and female horses in experiment 2.

Procedures—In experiment 1, 6 horses were orally administered firocoxib paste once daily for 12 consecutive days, and plasma and urine samples were obtained and analyzed. In a second experiment, 12 horses received IV injections of firocoxib solution once daily for 9 consecutive days, and plasma was obtained and analyzed.

Results—Mean ± SD clearance and steady-state volume of distribution of firocoxib were 40.5 ± 14.7 mL/h/kg and 2.3 ± 0.7 L/kg, respectively. Mean half-life was 44.2 ± 21.6 hours and 36.5 ± 9.5 hours for IV and oral administration, respectively. The urine concentration– time curve decreased in parallel with the plasma concentration-verus-time curve. Renal clearance (0.26 ± 0.09 mL/kg/h) was low, compared with total body clearance, which indicated that the main route of elimination was hepatic clearance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The pharmacokinetics of firocoxib during prolonged use were determined. Use of plasma or urine to ascertain drug concentrations in horses is scientifically valid because the plasma-to-urine ratio was consistent over time and among horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion.

Results—Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association