Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Peter Cowen x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Serum samples obtained from 40,927 swine at various locations in North Carolina between Aug 1, 1987 and July 31, 1988, were tested for antibodies to Trichinella spiralis, using an elisa based on a larval T spiralis excretory-secretory antigen. In the elisa, samples were considered to have positive results if the optical density (OD) reading was equal to or 5 times greater than the mean OD value of 4 negative-control sera from trichina-free swine. Of the 40,927 serum samples tested, 154 (0.38%) were positive by elisa; the rate for breeding swine was 0.35% (105/30,162), and the rate for cull swine was 0.45% (49/10,765). Of the 49 seropositive samples from cull swine, 11 were from out of the state, 22 had no identification, and 16 were known to originate from North Carolina. Seropositivity had a bimodally seasonal distribution, with peaks in March and September. There was no difference between the mean age of seropositive and seronegative swine, but males were at greater risk for seropositivity than were females. Pigs from lots with < 100 sera tested were at increased risk for seropositivity, as were pigs from the central coastal region of North Carolina.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the risks associated with wildlife rehabilitation and the reemergence of wildlife rabies in North Carolina through assessment of the status of knowledge and attitudes of licensed in-state wildlife rehabilitators about rabies and rabies vector species (RVS).

Design—Questionnaire survey.

Sample Population—672 North Carolina licensed wildlife rehabilitators registered in 1999.

Procedure—Wildlife rehabilitators were contacted by mail to determine their status of knowledge and attitudes regarding rabies and RVS. The questionnaire was designed to determine rehabilitators' recent experiences with RVS, attitudes toward regulations, and knowledge of rabies virus transmission. Results were analyzed by use of the χ2 test.

Results—Questionnaire responses were provided by 210 of the 672 (31.3%) wildlife rehabilitators. Among rehabilitators, there were some inconsistencies in their knowledge base regarding rabies (eg, 25% reported that they did not know at what age animals were capable of transmitting rabies virus). Most respondents were amenable to all proposed licensing prerequisites for handling RVS (ie, record keeping, additional training, and veterinarian support). Respondents reported > 580 calls annually about rehabilitating RVS, and 80% believed at least some of their peers were rehabilitating RVS illegally.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With the establishment of rabies as a disease that is endemic among wildlife species in North Carolina, educational efforts directed at wildlife rehabilitators (a subpopulation of residents potentially at high risk of rabies virus infection) would have direct and indirect public health benefits; similar efforts may be useful to public health communities elsewhere in the United States. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1568–1572)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Peritonitis was diagnosed in 67 horses between 1985 and 1990: 14 horses developed septic peritonitis after intestinal rupture, 25 horses developed peritonitis after abdominal surgery, and 28 horses had peritonitis not associated with intestinal rupture or abdominal surgery. Forty of 67 horses (59.7%) did not survive. Nonsurvivors had higher heart rates (P = 0.01), RBC count (P = 0.039), serum creatinine concentration (P = 0.036), pcv (P = 0.007), and anion gap (P = 0.005); lower venous blood pH (P = 0.002); and a greater number of bacterial species cultured from peritoneal fluid samples (P = 0.054), compared with those from survivors. Nonsurvivors were more likely to have signs of abdominal pain (P < 0.000), circulatory shock (P = 0.009), and bacteria in peritoneal fluid samples (P = 0.042). Physical examination and peritoneal fluid analysis were the most valuable diagnostic aids for intestinal rupture. Peritonitis after abdominal surgery resulted in high mortality (56%); peritonitis not associated with intestinal rupture or abdominal surgery had lower mortality (42.9%). Clinical and laboratory indices can be of value in determining the prognosis for horses with peritonitis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Population characteristics, risk factors, and survival characteristics were evaluated in 74 cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (hc) seen at North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 to 1989, and compared with 82 clinically normal cats. The mean (± sd) age of cats with HC was 6.5 (4.0) years. Neutered males were at significantly greater risk (odds ratio 3.1) than neutered females. Breed, body weight, or coat color were not determined to be risk factors for hc. Tricolor cats were significantly underrepresented, probably reflecting the male predisposition for hc and not a true risk reduction associated with coat color. Forty-one cats were without clinical signs of heart disease (murmur and/or gallop sound only), 24 were in congestive heart failure, and 9 had systemic arterial embolism, 3 of which had concomitant congestive heart failure.

The median survival time for 61 cats with HC, for which survival information could be obtained and that were not euthanatized on day 1, was 732 days. Survival was not affected by age at diagnosis, breed, body weight, or sex. However, clinical signs were important in determining prognosis; cats with heart rates < 200 beats/min survived significantly longer (median survival > 1,830 days) than those with heart rates ≥ 200 beats/min (median survival = 152 days). Cats without clinical signs (median survival > 1,830 days) survived longer than those with clinical signs, and cats in heart failure survived a median of 92 days, compared with 61 days for those with systemic arterial embolism. Analysis of survival revealed no significant difference between the 2 groups of cats with clinical signs; however, all cats with embolism and only 60% of cats with heart failure were dead 6 months after diagnosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Pseudorabies virus (prv) was isolated from 9 of 44 prv-vaccinated seropositive sows on 5 of 11 farms. Although serum-neutralization antibody titers were 1:16 to 1:256, 28 virus isolates were obtained from tonsil, nasal, or buccal swab samples from 9 sows given 2 ml of dexamethasone/kg of body weight im for 5 days. Pseudorabies virus was isolated from 6 of 20 sows (3 of 5 farms) given a killed-virus vaccination. Virus was obtained from 3 of 24 sows (2 of 6 farms) given modified-live virus and killed-virus vaccination.

Evaluation of the 9 prv with 5 restriction endonucleases revealed 4 prv existing genotypes. The 9 isolated types of prv appeared to be indistinguishable by Kpn I and BamHI restriction endonuclease analysis; however, when analyzed with Sal I, HinfI, and Pst I, isolates 7 (farm D), 8 (farm C), and 9 (farm B) had numerous differences. Isolates 1, 2, 3, and 4 (farm F) and 5 and 6 (farm G) appeared to be the same genotype when further analyzed with Pst I, HinfI, and Sal I.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Pseudorabies (pr) outbreak-investigation forms from 10 states having the most pr-infected herds were evaluated for agreement in question response-data type, information intent, and outbreak information categories. A question randomly selected from an investigation form had 0.6304 probability of being unique to a single state, and 0.0062 probability of being common to all states. Analysis of outbreak forms, on the basis of information intent, revealed that the probability of a randomly selected question being derived from an information category unique to a single state was 0.0323, whereas the probability of a question being derived from an information category shared by all states was 0.1935. A telephone survey revealed that state pr control officials did not believe additional research on between-herd spread of pr was necessary to successfully complete the eradication program. However, officials believed a better understanding of pr risk factors would enhance program effectiveness and build producer confidence.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Lack of a standardized information technology management strategy has resulted in state and federal information systems evolving separately, rather than in tandem. Absence of an information management strategy will eventually affect regulatory program management, epidemiologic research, and domestic and international livestock trade. Producers will ultimately pay the price for the lack of regulatory coordination of US animal health and disease information. The longer the development of state and federal information technology management strategies is postponed, the more cost-, labor-, and time-intensive correcting the deficiency will be. Development of a national information resources management environment is the first step in constructing state and federal information technology strategies.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify emerging animal and zoonotic diseases and associated geographic distribution, disease agents, animal hosts, and seasonality of reporting in the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED)-mail electronic early warning system.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—10,490 disease reports.

Procedures—Descriptive statistics were collated for all animal disease reports appearing on the ProMED-mail system from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2004.

Results—Approximately 30% of reports concerned events in the United States; reports were next most common in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Russia, and China. Rabies, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and anthrax were reported consistently over the study period, whereas avian influenza, Ebola virus, and Hantavirus infection were reported frequently in approximately half of the study years. Reports concerning viral agents composed more than half of the postings. Humans affected by zoonotic disease accounted for a third of the subjects. Cattle were affected in 1,080 reports, and wildlife species were affected in 825 reports. For the 10,490 postings studied, there was a retraction rate of 0.01 and a correction rate of 0.02.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ProMED-mail provided global coverage, but gaps in coverage for individual countries were detected. The value of a global electronic reporting system for monitoring emerging diseases over a 9-year period illustrated how new technologies can augment disease surveillance strategies. The number of animal and zoonotic diseases highlights the importance of animals in the study of emerging diseases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association