Objective—To assess microorganisms isolated from
blood specimens obtained from critically ill neonatal
foals and to evaluate their antimicrobial susceptibility
Animals—543 neonatal foals.
Procedure—Medical records of foals that were < 1
month old and were admitted to a referral neonatal
intensive care unit were reviewed for results of bacteriologic
culture of blood and antimicrobial susceptibility
Results—At least 1 microorganism was isolated from
155 of 543 (28.5%) foals. Escherichia coli was the
most commonly isolated bacterium. A single grampositive
organism was detected in 49 foals. Although
90% of the E coli isolates were susceptible to
amikacin, some gram-negative and gram-positive
organisms had resistance against multiple antimicrobials.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gram-negative
bacteria remain the most common isolates from
blood of neonatal foals; however, gram-positive
organisms were also found, and with greater prevalence
than reported elsewhere. Susceptibility patterns
may vary, and resistance to multiple antimicrobials
may develop. This is especially true for organisms
such as Enterobacter spp and Enterococcus
spp. Prudent empirical treatment for neonatal sepsis
should include broad-spectrum antimicrobials. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1608–1610)
Case Description—66 horses were potentially exposed to phosphine (a gas) 14 hours after being fed a pelleted ration treated with aluminum phosphide.
Clinical Findings—28 horses had clinical signs of profuse sweating, tachycardia, tachypnea, pyrexia, ataxia, seizures, and widespread muscle tremors. Clinically relevant laboratory findings included hypoglycemia and high plasma concentrations of lactate and ammonia and activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. At least 4 horses had signs consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Necropsy findings included petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in multiple organs, widespread vascular congestion, hepatic lipidosis, and neuronal necrosis in the brain. Phosphine was detected in the stomachs of the 3 horses tested.
Treatment and Outcome—On the farm, horses were treated with gastric lavage followed by administration of di-tri-octahedral smectite, atropine, fluids, and sedatives. Six horses were hospitalized, and lactated Ringer's solution and flunixin meglumine were administered IV. Additionally, 10% dextrose, corn syrup, and di-tri-octahedral smectite were administered PO. Twenty-seven horses died within 2 days after exposure. Two survivors (1 without clinical signs of toxicosis) made a complete recovery.
Clinical Relevance—Progression of clinical signs in affected horses in this report was rapid, with few treatment options available, leading to a high case fatality rate. Fumigation with aluminum phosphide is commonly performed to eliminate weevils and other insects from stored grains. When appropriate precautions are used during fumigation, risk to livestock is typically minimal.
Objective—To characterize healing of corneal epithelial
defects in horses and to evaluate the ability of epidermal
growth factor (EGF) to modulate rate of
corneal epithelial healing in horses.
Sample Population—20 eyes in 12 adult horses.
Procedure—Corneal epithelial wounds were created
by mechanically debriding the limbus. Corneal healing
was recorded for 3 treatment groups: 50 µg of
EGF/ml (n = 5 eyes), 5 µg of EGF/ml (7), and PBS solution
(8). Corneal healing was recorded once daily after
instillation of fluorescein stain by use of photography
and calculating the area of the wound, using imaging
Results—After corneal debridement, re-epithelialization
was rapid and progressed in a linear fashion for
the first 5 to 7 days after surgery in all groups. After
that period, rates of healing decreased. A profound
increase in the degree of inflammation, neovascularization,
melanosis, and scarring was observed in
eyes treated with the high dose of EGF (50 µg/ml),
but there was not a statistical difference in mean
healing time or in mean decrease in radius during the
linear phase between the control and either EGF
treatment groups. However, for all 8 horses in which
both eyes were debrided, the first eye healed significantly
faster than the second eye, regardless of
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Beneficial
effects of topical administration of a high dose of EGF
for acceleration of healing of corneal defects in eyes
of horses are outweighed by the intensity of the associated
inflammatory response. (Am J Vet Res 2000;