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- Author or Editor: Paulo S. P. Santos x
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OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia administered at 2 multiples of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on tissue perfusion in dogs.
ANIMALS 8 healthy young adult Beagles.
PROCEDURES A randomized crossover design was used. Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane at 1.5 or 2.0 times the MAC for 2 hours, a 7-day washout period was provided, and dogs were reanesthetized with the alternate treatment. Various physiologic variables were monitored before anesthesia (baseline), at 20-minute intervals during anesthesia, and after anesthetic recovery. Variable values were compared between MAC multiples by means of repeated-measures ANOVA, with the Tukey test used for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS During anesthesia, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and mixed venous oxygen saturation were significantly greater when isoflurane was administered at 1.5 versus 2.0 times the MAC. Cardiac output gradually increased during anesthesia at 1.5 times but not at 2.0 times the MAC. Arterial blood lactate concentration did not differ between MAC multiples at any point; however, this concentration decreased with increasing anesthetic duration at both MAC multiples. Oxygen delivery differed between MAC multiples, and oxygen consumption differed from baseline during anesthesia at 2.0 times the MAC. Oxygen extraction was higher at 2.0 versus 1.5 times the MAC. Heart rate differed between MAC multiples only after anesthetic recovery.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Isoflurane anesthesia impaired tissue perfusion in dogs, but these changes would not be clinically relevant with oxygen delivery at 100%. Peripheral tissue perfusion was maintained or improved with time.
OBJECTIVE To assess pulmonary hemodynamics and alveolar oxygenation in dogs anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in a closed-thoracic experimental model.
ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with each of 3 protocols (constant rate IV infusion of propofol [0.4 to 1.0 mg/kg/min], isoflurane at the minimum alveolar concentration [MAC], and isoflurane 1.5 MAC), with a 7-day washout period between anesthetic sessions. During each session, dogs were intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube, positioned in right lateral recumbency, and administered atracurium (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min) to allow mechanical ventilation throughout a 2-hour observation period. Dogs underwent two-lung ventilation for 30 minutes, OLV of the right lung for 1 hour, and two-lung ventilation for another 30 minutes. Pulmonary hemodynamic and blood gas variables were evaluated at predetermined times and compared among protocols and over time within each protocol.
RESULTS Alveolar oxygenation was not impaired, and mean heart rate and pulmonary artery pressure and occlusion pressure were similar among the 3 protocols. One-lung ventilation caused a significant increase in the arteriovenous shunt fraction only when dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane at 1.5 MAC. Dogs developed respiratory acidosis, which was exacerbated by OLV, during all anesthetic sessions.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated pulmonary hemodynamics and alveolar oxygenation during OLV in a closed-thoracic model were similar regardless of whether dogs were anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane. One-lung ventilation can be successfully performed in dogs by use of a double-lumen endotracheal tube and either propofol or isoflurane.
Objective—To evaluate plication of the free wall of the left ventricle, which reduces the left ventricular area and volume, as a method to improve the left ventricular systolic function without cardiopulmonary bypass.
Animals—8 mixed-breed adult dogs.
Procedure—Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was induced in each dog by administration of doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 168 days). Two dogs died during induction of cardiomyopathy. Plication surgery was performed in 4 dogs. Two dogs did not ondergo to surgery (control group). Values for cardiac output (CO), 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography, blood cell counts, and serum biochemical analyses were recorded after induction of DCM (baseline) and 1, 2, 7, 15, 21, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after plication surgery. Ambulatory ECG (Holter) recordings were conducted for 24 hours on the day of surgery.
Results—1 dog died after plication surgery. The remaining dogs undergoing ventricular plication had a significant improvement in CO, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening and reductions of left ventricular area and volume after surgery. Electrocardiographic and Holter recordings revealed premature ventricular complexes, which resolved without treatment during the first week after surgery. Clinical condition of the control dogs declined, and these 2 dogs died approximately 40 days after induction of cardiomyopathy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plication of the free wall of the left ventricle improved left ventricular systolic function in dogs with doxorubicininduced cardiomyopathy. Additional studies are needed to evaluate its application in dogs with naturally developing DCM. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:238–243)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of remifentanil hydrochloride on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in healthy propofol-anesthetized dogs.
ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Each dog underwent 2 experimental treatments separated by a 7-day interval. In 1 treatment, anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a CRI of propofol (0.6 mg/kg/min); dogs also received a CRI of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. In the other treatment, anesthesia was similarly induced and maintained with propofol; dogs also received a CRI of remifentanil (0.3 μg/kg/min). Doppler echocardiographic and hemodynamic variables of interest were determined at baseline (before anesthesia) and at 20, 40, and 60 minutes following the simultaneous start of the 2 CRIs of each treatment; all CRIs were administrated for 60 minutes.
RESULTS For the 2 treatments, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indices did not differ from baseline or at any time point. Peak tissue Doppler-derived mitral annulus systolic velocity decreased from baseline with both treatments; however, no differences were found between treatments at any time point. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased similarly with both treatments. Heart rate and Doppler-determined cardiac index decreased significantly with the propofol-remifentanil treatment, compared with findings for the propofol-saline solution treatment. For the propofol-remifentanil treatment, the ratio of peak velocity flow in early diastole to that in late diastole remained > 1.80, whereas the ratio of early to late Doppler-derived mitral annulus velocity had a normal relaxation pattern.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that a CRI of remifentanil administered along with a CRI of propofol does not impair left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in healthy dogs.