Objective—To determine the electrophysiological changes in dogs with peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs), evaluate the prevalence of these changes, assess the correlation between spontaneous activity in epaxial muscles and proximal invasion by the tumor, and evaluate whether knowledge of electrophysiological changes could be helpful in the imaging diagnosis via CT or MRI.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—51 dogs with a histologic (n = 18) or a suspected (33) diagnosis of PNST.
Procedures—Clinical, postmortem, and histologic reports and details of electrodiagnostic procedures and CT or MRI reports were studied. Twenty-four CT and 6 MRI reports for dogs with PNSTs were reviewed by a single observer blinded to the diagnosis.
Results—Only 2 of the 51 dogs had no electrophysiological changes. The most commonly affected muscles were those innervated by the radial, ulnar, median, tibial-sciatic, and peroneal nerves. Abnormal spontaneous epaxial muscle activity was significantly more frequent in the group with foraminal or spinal invasion by the tumors. Knowledge of the electrophysiological changes increased diagnostic accuracy of CT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that electrophysiological studies may be sensitive for the detection of PNST and helpful in the imaging diagnosis. Epaxial electromyographic abnormalities appeared to be predictive for intervertebral or vertebral canal invasion by PNSTs in dogs.
Objective—To assess vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism of hyperplastic adrenal glands in dogs via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.
Animals—12 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and 7 healthy control dogs ≥ 7 years old.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to the PDH and control groups and to small-breed (n = 6), medium-breed (4), and large-breed (9) subgroups. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of both adrenal glands in each dog was performed with IV injections of contrast agent. Time-intensity curves for the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and ipsilateral renal artery of both adrenal glands were generated. Perfusion variables (time to peak [TTP], upslope of wash-in phase, and downslope of washout phase) were calculated.
Results—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed no qualitative difference between PDH and control groups. Quantitatively, TTPs were longer in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the PDH group, compared with values for the control group, particularly in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup. Washout downslopes were lower for the renal artery, adrenal cortex, and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup between the PDH and control groups. No other perfusion variables differed between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands in dogs with PDH revealed a delayed TTP in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, compared with values for control dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to detect vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether reference ranges for clinically normal dogs and dogs with PDH can be determined and applied in clinical settings.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old spayed female Rottweiler was referred for evaluation because of a 2-month history of regurgitation and weight loss, despite no apparent change in appetite. The dog had received antiemetic and antacid treatment, without improvement.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a low body condition score (2/5), but other findings were unremarkable. Diffuse, global esophageal dilatation was noted on plain thoracic radiographs, and normal motility was confirmed through videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Transhepatic ultrasonographic and CT examination revealed a circumferential, intraparietal lesion in the distal portion of the esophagus causing distal esophageal or cardial subobstruction and no metastases. Incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed, and findings of histologic examination supported a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In view of numerous possible complications associated with esophageal surgery, the decision was made to palliatively treat the dog by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent under endoscopic guidance. Two weeks after stent placement, radiography revealed complete migration of the stent into the gastric lumen. Gastrotomy was performed, and the stent was replaced and fixed in place. Twenty-four months after initial stent placement, the dog had a healthy body condition and remained free of previous clinical signs.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diffuse benign muscular neoplasia should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acquired esophageal dilatation in adult and elderly dogs. In the dog of this report, transcardial stent placement resulted in resolution of the clinical signs, with no apparent adverse effect on digestive function. The described procedure could be beneficial for nonsurgical treatment of benign esophageal tumors in dogs.