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  • Author or Editor: Paula Grest x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.

ANIMALS 11 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen. On the MRI images, a region of interest (ROI) was established for each of 6 structures (aorta, caudal vena cava, portal vein, hepatic parenchyma, splenic parenchyma, and skeletal [epaxial] muscle). The signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images, and the normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma. Dogs also underwent abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate samples and biopsy specimens were obtained from the liver for cytologic and histologic examination.

RESULTS Cytologic and histologic results suggested that the liver was clinically normal in all dogs. Perfusion-weighted MRI parameters varied among the 6 ROIs. The mean ± SD ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 0.84 × 10−3 mm2/s ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s, and the mean normalized ADC for the liver was 1.8 ± 0.4.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs. Additional studies on dogs of various breeds with and without hepatopathies are necessary to validate and refine these findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To detect and partially characterize papillomavirus (PV) DNA in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumor specimens from cats.

Sample Population—54 formalin-fixed paraffinembedded skin biopsy specimens were examined. Specimens originated from Bowenoid in situ SCC (BISC; n = 21), invasive SCC (22), and skin affected by miscellaneous nonneoplastic conditions (11).

Procedures—Samples from each tissue block underwent DNA extraction after deparaffinization, and PCR assays were performed. Two sets of primers derived from PV E1 were used. The first set of primers was designed for the narrow-range PCR assay and was able to generate amplification products of feline PV (FePV), canine oral PV, or closely related PVs. The second set of primers was selected for the broad-range PCR assay because of its ability to amplify DNA from 64 human PVs. Sequence analysis of each amplified DNA was performed.

Results—1 of the 21 specimens of BISC was positive for PV DNA on the basis of narrow-range PCR assay results, whereas all the other specimens (BISC, invasive SCC, and controls) had negative results for PV DNA. In contrast, 5 of 21 BISC specimens and 4 of 22 invasive SCC specimens were positive for PV DNA on the basis of broad-range PCR assay results. Sequence analysis revealed that only 1 specimen was infected by a virus closely related to classic FePV. In the 8 other specimens positive for PV DNA, DNA of unknown PVs was uncovered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bowenoid in situ SCC and invasive SCC of cats may be associated with PVs of genetic diversity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cyclosporine Ainduced hyperplastic skin lesions of dogs were associated with papillomavirus infections.

Animals—9 dogs that were treated with cyclosporine A and developed hyperplastic skin lesions.

Procedure—History and clinical and histopathologic data were collected. Paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens from hyperplastic skin lesions were immunostained for common papillomavirus genusspecific structural antigens by use of a polyclonal rabbit anti-bovine papillomavirus type 1 antiserum. Sections from each tissue block underwent DNA extraction, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed with several sets of primers to amplify a wide range of papillomavirus DNA from humans and other animals.

Results—In 7 of 9 dogs, there were more than 10 hyperplastic skin lesions that microscopically resembled those of psoriasiform lichenoid dermatosis. In those dogs, results of testing for papillomavirus via immunohistochemical analyses and PCR assays were negative. In the other 2 dogs, there were only 1 and 3 verrucous lesions, and in those dogs, histologic evaluation revealed koilocytes and nuclear viral inclusions that were immunoreactive for papillomavirus antigens. Papillomavirus DNA was amplified from both dogs. One of the sequences was characteristic for the canine oral papillomavirus, whereas the other had similarities with the recently described canine papillomavirus 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, hyperplastic skin lesions occasionally develop during treatment with cyclosporine A. Most of the lesions resemble those of psoriasiform lichenoid dermatosis, although papillomavirus can be detected in some instances. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1764–1769)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare ultrasonographic and histologic examination findings for eyes of animals with ocular diseases.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—116 eyes of 113 animals examined at 2 facilities.

Procedures—Diseased eyes of animals were examined by means of ultrasonography, removed via enucleation or exenteration, then histologically examined. Ultrasonographic images and histopathologic slides were evaluated, and diseases of eyes were identified with each of those methods and allocated to various categories. For each disease category, agreement between results of ultrasonography and those of histologic examination was assessed via determination of κ statistic values.

Results—Tests had good agreement for identification of iris or ciliary body neoplasia. Overall, intraocular neoplasia was not detected via ultrasonography for only 2 of 31 eyes with histologically detected neoplasia. Hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes were misinterpreted as neoplasia for 8 of 37 (22%) eyes. Tests had moderate to acceptable agreement for identification of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment was not detected by means of ultrasonography for 14 of 38 (37%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via histologic examination at one of the facilities (primarily in eyes with intraocular hemorrhage); however, retinal detachment was not identified via histologic examination for 6 of 38 (16%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via ultrasonography at the other facility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of intraocular neoplasia. Typically, diseases were misdiagnosed via ultrasonography for eyes with poor image contrast. Because determination of ultrasonographic diagnoses of retinal detachment and intraocular neoplasm may be of prognostic importance, performance of additional ultrasonographic techniques may be indicated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association