Case Description—A 4-year-old spayed female Mastiff was evaluated for treatment of chronic nonhealing pressure wounds over both elbow regions resulting from attempts at hypertrophic callus excision.
Clinical Findings—The wound bed granulation tissue was mottled red and yellow with hyperemic, rolled epithelial edges. The right wound communicated with a large fluid pocket along the thoracic wall. The dog had an inflammatory leukogram with a left shift.
Treatment and Outcome—The wounds were debrided, and tissue specimens were collected for histologic evaluation, microbial culture, and bacterial identification by means of molecular diagnostic techniques. The left wound was closed immediately. Calcium alginate rope with silver was packed into the right wound. Vacuum-assisted closure was applied for 6 days. Debridement was repeated, and a thoracodorsal axial pattern flap was used to cover the wound. Systemic treatment with antimicrobials was initiated, and pressure over the elbow regions was relieved. Bacterial biofilms were identified histologically in tissue specimens from both wounds. Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus canis were cultured and identified by 16S rRNA fragment sequencing. Pyrosequencing identified multiple bacterial species and no fungal organisms. Both wounds healed successfully.
Clinical Relevance—Biofilms are implicated in infected orthopedic implants in veterinary patients; however, this is the first report of a bacterial biofilm in chronic wounds in a dog. In human wound care, extensive debridement is performed to disrupt the biofilm; a multimodal treatment approach is recommended to delay reformation and help clear the infection. In this case, biofilm reformation was prevented by systemic treatment with antimicrobials, by reducing local pressure on the wounds, and by wound closure.
Objective—To test the hypotheses that the densities
of macrophages in the synovial membranes and capsules
of stifle joints in dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate
ligaments are greater than those of normal joints
and that those densities in affected joints are positively
correlated with the chronicity and severity of
Animals—17 dogs with naturally occurring rupture of
the cranial cruciate ligament and 5 healthy control
Procedure—All dogs underwent orthopedic and radiographic
evaluations. In affected dogs, duration of clinical
signs was used as an indicator of disease chronicity
and the severity of osteoarthritis in the stifle joint
was determined radiographically. Joint capsule specimens
were evaluated histologically; macrophages,
interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were identified
by use of immunocytochemical techniques.
Results—Compared with unaffected joints,
macrophage density was increased in all affected
joints. Duration of disease was significantly associated
with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis and
synovial macrophage density. Synovial macrophage
density was significantly associated with severity of
osteoarthritis and with the presence of interleukin-6
and tumor necrosis factor-α.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that synovial macrophages may be involved in the
development of pathologic changes (including osteophyte
formation) in the stifle joints of dogs with
osteoarthritis secondary to rupture of the cranial cruciate
ligament. Determination of the importance of synovial
macrophages in the development of changes in
osteoarthritic joints may result in new treatment strategies
that involve elimination of the deleterious effects
of those cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:493–499)
Objective—To compare heartworm serum antibody
(Ab) and antigen (Ag) test results, using commercial
laboratories and in-house heartworm test kits, with
necropsy findings in a population of shelter cats.
Animals—330 cats at an animal shelter.
Procedure—Between March and June 1998, 30 ml
of blood was collected from the cranial and caudal
venae cavae of 330 cats that were euthanatized at a
local animal shelter. Results of heartworm Ab and
Ag serologic tests for heartworm infection were
compared with necropsy findings in this population
of cats, using commercial laboratories and in-house
test kits to measure serum Ab and Ag concentrations.
Results—On necropsy, adult Dirofilaria immitis were
found in 19 of 330 (5.8%) cats. Combining results
from serum Ab and Ag tests achieved higher sensitivities
than using serum Ab and Ag test results alone
(ie, maximum sensitivities of 100% vs 89.5%, respectively),
whereas use of serum Ag and Ab test results
alone achieved higher specificities compared with the
use of a combination of serum Ab and Ag results (ie,
maximum specificities of 99.4% vs 92.9%, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis
of our findings, if a cat has clinical signs that suggest
heartworm disease despite a negative heartworm
serum Ab test result, an alternative heartworm Ab
test, a heartworm Ag test, thoracic radiography, or
two-dimensional echocardiography should be performed.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:693–700)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of selective hip joint denervation on gait abnormalities and signs of hip joint pain in dogs.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs.
PROCEDURES Minimally invasive denervation was performed on the right hip joint of each dog. Two weeks later, sodium urate was injected into the right hip joint to induce synovitis. Dogs were evaluated clinically and by use of instrumented gait analysis before and 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation and 4, 8, and 24 hours after induction of synovitis. Dogs were euthanized, and necropsy and histologic examination were performed.
RESULTS No kinetic or kinematic gait modifications were detected 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation. Denervation did not eliminate signs of pain and lameness associated with sodium urate–induced synovitis. Results of histologic examination confirmed that denervation was an effective method for transecting the innervation of the craniolateral and caudolateral aspects of the hip joint capsule.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, minimally invasive denervation did not result in gait modifications in dogs. Denervation did not abolish the signs of pain and lameness associated with generalized induced synovitis of the hip joint. Further studies are required before conclusions can be drawn regarding the clinical usefulness of hip joint denervation for dogs with hip dysplasia.
Objective—To determine the maximum tolerated
dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam,
the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined
with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant
melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma
(SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics
of cisplatin in dogs with tumors.
Design—Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial.
Procedure—Dogs were treated with a combination
of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis
with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) and piroxicam
(0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin
dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2
until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size
were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment.
The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined
in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin
and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that
were treated with cisplatin alone.
Results—11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC
were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin
when administered in combination with piroxicam
was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5
of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM.
The most common abnormality observed was renal
toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were
treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different
from that in dogs treated with a combination
of cisplatin and piroxicam.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cisplatin administered
in combination with piroxicam had antitumor
activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was
acceptable, although renal function must be monitored
carefully. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:388–394)
Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and
histologic abnormalities in adult cats > 1 year old with
spontaneous (ie, nontraumatic) femoral capital physeal
Procedure—Medical records of cats > 1 year old with
femoral capital physeal fractures and no history of
trauma were examined.
Results—Mean ± SD age of the cats was 22.5 ± 6.5
months. Twenty-five cats were neutered males. Mean
weight of the cats was significantly greater than mean
weight of a group of age- and sex-matched control cats.
Of 16 cats for which age at the time of neutering was
known, 14 had been neutered before 6 months of age.
Nine cats had bilateral fractures. Severity of femoral
neck osteolysis and sclerosis increased with increased
duration of clinical signs. The contralateral femoral capital
physis, distal femoral physes, and proximal tibial
physes were radiographically open in 13 of 18, 19 of 24,
and 24 of 24 cats, respectively. Histologically, the epiphysis
contained normal articular cartilage and bone,
but attached growth plate cartilage lacked the normal
columnar arrangement of chondrocytes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that adult cats with spontaneous femoral
capital physeal fractures were most likely to be
heavier, neutered males with delayed physeal closure.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1731–1736)