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  • Author or Editor: Paul T. Purinton x
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SUMMARY

Blood flow to the semitendinosus muscle was studied in 12 dogs after ligation of either the proximal or distal vascular pedicle and elevation of the muscle from its normal position. Using 15-μm-diameter radioactive microspheres, flow was measured at rest, 6 and 18 days after muscle elevation and pedicle ligation. Mean blood flow in the proximal region of the muscle 6 and 18 days after ligation of the caudal gluteal (proximal) pedicle was not significantly different from mean blood flow calculated in the middle and distal regions of the muscle. There was also no significant difference in mean blood flow among proximal, middle, and distal regions of the muscle, 6 and 18 days after ligation of the distal caudal femoral (distal) pedicle. There was significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood flow between group-A (ligation of caudal gluteal artery) and group-C (operated-control) muscles, 6 and 18 days after surgery. There was no loss of muscle fiber striations or nuclei, or presence of fibrous tissue that might have indicated ischemic necrosis in any of the experimental groups. These results indicate that the entire semitendinosus muscle can be sustained by the blood flow from either of its 2 vascular pedicles, which reinforces its potential as a muscle flap.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Noninvasive determination of anal and genitoanal reflexes was evaluated in clinically normal cats. Thirty adult mixed-breed cats (15 sexually intact or castrated males, 15 sexually intact or spayed females) were sedated by iv administration of ketamine, acetylpromazine, and atropine. Anal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after ipsilateral and contralateral electrical stimulation of the perineal skin. Genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after electrical stimulation of the penis or clitoris. An anal sphincter response to tibial nerve stimulation was attempted.

Anal reflexes from ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations and a genitoanal reflex were detected in all cats. Anal sphincter responses to tibial nerve stimulation were inconsistent (4/30) and were not included in any analyses. Anal reflexes had response latencies of 7.5 to 12.0 ms (ipsilateral stimulation) and 6.5 to 13 ms (contralateral stimulation). Genitoanal reflexes had latencies of 9.0 to 13.0 ms (males) and 6.5 to 9.0 ms (females). Anal reflex latencies were significantly (P < 0.05) longer for contralateral, opposed to ipsilateral, stimulation and were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females. Genitoanal reflex latencies were also significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females, reflecting the more peripheral stimulation site in males.

Anal reflex responses could be recorded in 2 feline clinic patients with such severe perineal trauma that pudendal nerve function could not be manually evaluated. A potentially favorable prognosis was given in each instance on the basis of detection of the response. One cat eventually recovered. The other was euthanatized because of other problems, and the sacral part of the spinal cord, sacral nerve roots, and pudendal nerves were found to be intact at necropsy.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The bulbospongiosus reflex, genitoanal reflex, and nerve conduction velocity of the dorsal nerve of the penis were evaluated in cats. Seven adult sexually intact or castrated male mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the bulbospongiosus (analagous to bulbocavernosus) branch, anal branch, and distal trunk of the pudendal nerve. The bulbospongiosus and genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the bulbospongiosus and anal branches, respectively, by electrical stimulation, in turn, of the distal pudendal trunk and the penis itself. Nerve conduction velocity of the dorsal nerve of the penis was calculated by measuring response latency differences in the anal branch after stimulation of 2 sites on the extruded penis.

The bulbospongiosus reflex had response latencies of 8.1 to 10.3 ms (distal trunk stimulation) and 11.0 to 13.0 ms (penile stimulation). The genitoanal reflex had latencies of 8.1 to 10.5 ms (distal trunk stimulation) and 11.2 to 13.2 ms (penile stimulation). Response amplitudes diminished at stimulus rates of 5 to 10 Hz; responses were abolished at rates of 12 to 15 Hz, suggesting that the reflexes are polysynaptic. There was no significant difference between latency values for the bulbospongiosus and genitoanal reflexes.

Mean ± sd nerve conduction velocity in the dorsal nerve of the penis was calculated to be 3.8 ± 0.34 m/s, which was considerably slower than that found in human beings. This may represent technical difficulties in performing the test in cats, but could also indicate a difference between cats and human beings in the predominant population of cutaneous sensory fiber types of the penis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Evaluation of pudendal reflexes and effects of pudendal branch conditioning on those reflexes was carried out in 2 studies. In the first study of pudendal reflexes, 20 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the anal branch, urethral branch, and distal trunk (consisting primarily of the dorsal nerve of the penis/clitoris) of the pudendal nerve. Reflexes were tested in all possible ipsilateral and contralateral test-response combinations. Latency values and effects of increasing stimulus rate on response amplitude were recorded. Reflexes were detected in all combinations, with response latencies between 6.3 and 13.0 ms. Response amplitudes were diminished at stimulus rates of 3 to 5 Hz, and responses were apparently abolished at 4 to 16 Hz, suggesting that pudendal reflexes are polysynaptic.

In the second study of conditioning effects, 9 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent preparation similar to that for study 1. A train of conditioning stimuli was applied to branches of the pudendal nerve prior to attempting to induce reflex responses, as performed in study 1. Conditioning completely abolished reflex responses for a period of 70 to 130 ms. Reflex responses were diminished in amplitude, compared with those observed during preconditioning trials, for 180 to 300 ms after conditioning.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The vascular patterns to pelvic limb muscles were studied in 6 dogs (12 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify the vascular pedicles. The vascular peicles to several muscles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cranial part of the sartorius, gracillis, semitendinosus, and rectus femoris muscles were identified as suitable candidates for transfer. The caudal part of the sartorius, cranial tibial, and long digital extensor muscles have segmentalized vascular patterns that would limit its arc of rotation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research