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Objective

To evaluate the risk and efficacy of pulmonary lobectomy in dogs with pneumonia.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

59 dogs with pneumonia.

Procedure

Review of medical records and telephone conversations.

Results

54.2% of dogs had resolution of pneumonia after lobectomy, 20.3% died in the perioperative period, and 25.4% survived the perioperative period but pneumonia did not resolve. Pneumonia was caused by bacteria (25 dogs), fungi (12), foreign bodies (8), parasites (1), viruses (1), and allergies (1). In 11 dogs, the etiologic agent was not isolated. Bacterial or fungal pneumonias were significantly less likely to resolve compared with foreign body pneumonia or when an etiologic agent was not isolated. Perioperative mortality rate increased significantly with an increase in number of pulmonary lobes removed. Complications during surgery significantly increased perioperative mortality rate. Surgical era (1972 to 1983 vs 1984 to 1994) was a significant predictor of mortality, with the odds of dying in the perioperative period being 11 times greater between 1972 to 1983. The odds of failure to resolve pneumonia was 3 times greater during 1972 to 1983.

Clinical Implications

Number of pulmonary lobes removed and complications during surgery significantly affect perioperative mortality rate. Identification of etiologic agents may help in predicting dogs likely to resolve pneumonia after surgery.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To ascertain effects of x-ray beam centering and limb position on apparent congruity of a normal cubital joint (elbow).

Animals

6 skeletally mature male Treeing Walker Coonhounds without physical, radiographic, or gross evidence of elbow abnormalities.

Procedure

Relative movement among humerus, radius, and ulna and measured joint space width on mediolateral and craniocaudal radiographic views was compared, using various x-ray beam centering and limb positions.

Results

Highest agreement and greatest certainty on subjective determination of congruity was for the flexed 90° mediolateral radiographic view with the x-ray beam centered on the elbow. Distortion artifact of the proximal ulnar measurements was significant when the x-ray beam was centered on the midpoint of the radius. On the mediolateral view, the humeroradial joint space became significantly wide when the elbow was flexed. On the craniocaudal view, maximal humeroradial joint space width was obtained when the x-ray beam bisected the angle of the joint or was angled +30° toward the humerus.

Conclusions

Artifact distortion of joint width affected objective and subjective assessment of elbow congruity when the limb was placed in extreme flexion or extension or when the x-ray beam was not centered over the area of interest. Optimal visualization of the humeroradial joint space on the craniocaudal view was achieved when the x-ray beam bisected the angle of the elbow or was slightly angled toward the humerus.

Clinical Relevance

Elbow congruity was best assessed on the flexed 90° lateral radiographic view with the x-ray beam centered on the joint. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1351–1357)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To document the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) after cataract surgery in dogs.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Sample Population

88 dogs that had had cataract surgery.

Procedure

The effect of several categorical variables on the development of POH was evaluated statistically. Postoperative ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure > 25 and > 30 mm of Hg.

Results

The incidence of POH > 25 mm of Hg was 48.9%; > 30 mm of Hg, 33.8%; > 40 mm of Hg, 20.1%; and > 50 mm of Hg, 5.8%. Mean onset of POH > 25 mm of Hg was 4.9 hours. The incidence of POH was not affected by the type of surgery. Eyes that had phacoemulsification developed POH significantly more rapidly (mean, 3.9 hours), compared with those that had extracapsular lens extraction (8.4 hours). Mean phacoemulsification duration was greater in eyes that developed POH, and older dogs were more likely to develop POH. Development of POH was not correlated with sex, stage of cataract, type of surgical procedure performed, intraocular lens placement, preoperative lens-induced uveitis, or posterior lens capsule tears and vitrectomy. However, eyes that received intraocular lens implants developed POH more rapidly, compared with eyes without implants.

Clinical Implications

The high incidence and early onset of POH after cataract surgery suggests that routine use of antiglaucoma medications in the first 12 hours after surgery is warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:105–111)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the usefulness of 5 radiographic projections of the elbow joint for identification of fragmented coronoid process (FCP) and associated secondary degenerative changes in dogs.

Design

Longitudinal clinical study.

Animals

19 dogs suspected of having FCP (7 dogs, 1 elbow joint; 12 dogs, both elbow joints).

Procedure

5 radiographic projections were obtained before and after surgery for all elbow joints on which exploratory arthrotomy was performed because of suspected FCP. Radiographs obtained before surgery were compared with radiographs obtained after surgery and radiographs taken of the excised fragments. Each projection was evalated for its utitility in definitively identifying FCP and 7 specific degenerative changes. Interevaluator agreement, use of each radiographic projection for definitively identifying a feature, and ability of the 4 evaluators to definitively identify a feature were analyzed.

Results

The craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO) projection had a significantly higher sensitivity for definitively identifying FCP, compared with the other 4 projections. Interevaluator and kappa agreement for the 5 projections did not differ significantly among the 7 degenerative changes evaluated. The radiographic projection with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detection of a particular degenerative change varied by feature.

Clinical Implications

Of the 5 radiographic projections evaluated, the Cr15L-CdMO projection provided the highest sensitivity and was the best projection to use for definitively identifying FCP. The craniocaudal, Cr15L-CdMO, and mediolateral projections most reliably allowed for identification of secondary degenerative changes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:52–58)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association