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Abstract

Objective—To determine regional and zonal variation in sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate in normal equine corneal stroma.

Sample Population—22 normal eyes from 11 horses.

Procedure—Corneas were collected within 24 hours of death from equine necropsy specimens. After papain-chondroitinase digestion of corneal tissue, disaccharides ΔDi4S and ΔDi6S were quantified by use of capillary zone electrophoresis in the superficial, middle, and deep zones of central and peripheral regions of the cornea.

Results—For the 2 regions combined,ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values were significantly lower in the deep and middle zones, compared with that of the superficial zone. In the central region, deep and middle zones had significantly lower ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values than the superficial zone did. In the peripheral region, the deep zone had significantly lower ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values, compared with superficial and middle zones. In the deep zone, the peripheral region had significantly lower ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values than the central region did.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Distribution of ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values follows a gradient across the healthy equine cornea, being smallest in the deep and middle zones of the central region and the deep zone of the peripheral region. Regional and zonal differences in the distribution of stromal ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S may influence the role of glycosaminoglycans in health, disease, and wound repair of the equine cornea. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:143–147)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for successful surgical management of dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 dogs managed surgically for AAS.

Procedure—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery, radiographic appearance of the dens, type (dorsal or ventral procedure) and number (1 or 2) of surgeries performed, grade of postoperative atlantoaxial joint reduction, and neurologic status prior to surgery (preoperative), when dogs were discharged from the hospital (postoperative), and during a follow-up evaluation (final) were obtained from the dogs' medical records. Risk factors for surgical success and degree of neurologic improvement were identified and analyzed for predictive potential.

Results—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities ≤ 24 months was significantly associated with greater odds of a successful first surgery and final outcome and a lower postoperative neurologic grade. Duration of clinical abnormalities ≤ 10 months was significantly associated with greater odds of a successful final outcome and a lower final neurologic grade. A preoperative neurologic grade of 1 or 2 was significantly associated with a lower final neurologic grade. Potential risk factors that did not affect odds of a successful outcome included type of surgery performed, grade of atlantoaxial joint reduction, radiographic appearance of the dens, or need for a second surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery, and preoperative neurologic status are risk factors for success of surgical management of AAS in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216:1104–1109)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare heartworm serum antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) test results, using commercial laboratories and in-house heartworm test kits, with necropsy findings in a population of shelter cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—330 cats at an animal shelter.

Procedure—Between March and June 1998, 30 ml of blood was collected from the cranial and caudal venae cavae of 330 cats that were euthanatized at a local animal shelter. Results of heartworm Ab and Ag serologic tests for heartworm infection were compared with necropsy findings in this population of cats, using commercial laboratories and in-house test kits to measure serum Ab and Ag concentrations.

Results—On necropsy, adult Dirofilaria immitis were found in 19 of 330 (5.8%) cats. Combining results from serum Ab and Ag tests achieved higher sensitivities than using serum Ab and Ag test results alone (ie, maximum sensitivities of 100% vs 89.5%, respectively), whereas use of serum Ag and Ab test results alone achieved higher specificities compared with the use of a combination of serum Ab and Ag results (ie, maximum specificities of 99.4% vs 92.9%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of our findings, if a cat has clinical signs that suggest heartworm disease despite a negative heartworm serum Ab test result, an alternative heartworm Ab test, a heartworm Ag test, thoracic radiography, or two-dimensional echocardiography should be performed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:693–700)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) and other variables as predictors of the risk of developing glaucoma after cataract surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—220 dogs that had cataract surgery.

Procedure—Medical records of 220 dogs (346 eyes) that had extracapsular cataract removal or phacoemulsification of cataracts were reviewed. With respect to glaucoma development, 8 variables were analyzed, which included development of POH, breed, sex, age at time of surgery, eye (right vs left), phacoemulsification time, intraocular lens (IOL) placement (yes or no), and stage of cataract development. Eyes developed glaucoma within 6 or 12 months of surgery or did not have signs of glaucoma at least 6 or 12 months after cataract surgery.

Results—Of 346 eyes, 58 (16.8%) developed glaucoma after surgery. At 6 months, 32 of 206 (15.5%) eyes examined had glaucoma; at 12 months, 44 of 153 (28.8%) eyes examined had glaucoma. Median follow-up time was 5.8 months (range, 0.1 to 48 months). Mixed-breed dogs were at a significantly lower risk for glaucoma, compared with other breeds. Eyes with IOL placement were at a significantly lower risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes without IOL placement. Eyes with hypermature cataracts were at a significantly higher risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes with mature or immature cataracts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple factors appear to contribute to the onset of glaucoma in dogs after cataract surgery. Complications prohibiting IOL placement during cataract surgery may lead to a high risk of glaucoma development. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1780–1786)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association