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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses to return to galloping and racing with injuries to the palmaroproximal metacarpus diagnosed with MRI.

ANIMALS

29 flat racing Thoroughbreds at the Hong Kong Jockey Club that underwent MRI between 2014 and 2022.

METHODS

Clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and MRI reports were collected from veterinary clinical records, and these were combined with training and racing data. Horses were categorized on the basis of MRI diagnosis: (1) proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) involvement only, (2) PSL and concurrent proximal third metacarpal (MC3) bone involvement, and (3) proximal MC3 bone involvement only. The following were compared for prognosis for return to athletic function: return to galloping or racing, and reinjury.

RESULTS

Overall, the prognosis for return to athletic function was fair, with 92% (22/24; P = .53) and 67% (16/24; P = .73) of horses returning to galloping and racing, respectively. There was a relatively low reinjury rate, with 18% (4/22) of horses reinjuring. Horses with concurrent injury to both the PSL and proximal MC3 bone (Category 2) took longer to return to gallop (median, 116; IQR, 100.5 to 160), when compared with horses having only PSL injury (median, 69; IQR, 43 to 80; P = .04). Of the 4 horses that reinjured, 3 (75%) were horses in Category 2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The findings from this study suggest that injuries involving both PSL and proximal MC3 bone concurrently require a longer rehabilitation period than those with PSL involvement alone.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by hypokalemia and hyponatremia was induced experimentally in 7 adult sheep by diversion (loss) of gastric contents through an Ivan and Johnston cannula placed in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. Cannula placement was easily accomplished, and cannulae were tolerated well by the sheep. Volume of effluent produced during the 60- to 120-hour period of diversion ranged from 7.7 to 14.9 L and tended to be greatest during the first 24 hours. All sheep became dehydrated, with mean pcv and plasma total protein concentration increases of 94.2 and 61.7%, respectively. Plasma chloride concentration decreased in linear fashion from a prediversion mean of 113 mEq/L (range, 111 to 117 mEq/L) to an end-point mean of 54 mEq/L (range, 45 to 65 mEq/L). Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations also decreased, though potassium concentration increased terminally. There were rapid increases in arterial blood pH and bicarbonate and base excess concentrations during the first 48 hours after diversion. However, during the final stages of diversion, sheep developed superimposed metabolic acidosis with increased plasma lactate concentration and high anion gap.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3)–derived proresolving lipid mediators (PRLM) in the resolution of mild airway inflammation in horses.

ANIMALS

20 horses with mild airway inflammation.

PROCEDURES

Horses previously eating hay were fed hay pellets (low Ω-3 content; n = 10) or haylage (high Ω-3 content; 9) for 6 weeks. Dust exposure was measured in the breathing zone with a real-time particulate monitor. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at baseline, week 3, and week 6. The effect of PRLM on neutrophil apoptosis and efferocytosis was examined in vitro. BAL fluid inflammatory cell proportions, apoptosis of circulating neutrophils, efferocytosis displayed by alveolar macrophages, and plasma lipid concentrations were compared between groups fed low and high amounts of Ω-3 by use of repeated measures of generalized linear models.

RESULTS

Dust exposure was significantly higher with hay feeding, compared to haylage and pellets, and equivalent between haylage and pellets. BAL fluid neutrophil proportions decreased significantly in horses fed haylage (baseline, 11.8 ± 2.4%; week 6, 2.5 ± 1.1%) but not pellets (baseline, 12.1 ± 2.3%; week 6, 8.5% ± 1.7%). At week 6, horses eating haylage had significantly lower BAL neutrophil proportions than those eating pellets, and a significantly lower concentration of stearic acid than at baseline. PRLM treatments did not affect neutrophil apoptosis or efferocytosis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Despite similar reduction in dust exposure, horses fed haylage displayed greater resolution of airway inflammation than those fed pellets. This improvement was not associated with increased plasma Ω-3 concentrations. Feeding haylage improves airway inflammation beyond that due to reduced dust exposure, though the mechanism remains unclear.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research