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  • Author or Editor: Paul R. Torgerson x
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To describe outcome and complications after large intestinal trocarization in equids with colic and identify factors associated with nonsurvival and clinically relevant peritonitis (CRP).


228 (198 horses, 24 ponies, and 6 donkeys and mules) equids with colic that underwent large intestinal trocarization.


Medical records from 2004 through 2015 were reviewed for equids with colic that underwent large intestinal trocarization. Factors associated with nonsurvival in all (ie, surgically and medically treated) equids and with CRP in medically only treated equids were identified. Medically only treated equids with a high peritoneal fluid cell count (ie, > 10,000 cells/μL) after large intestinal trocarization were classified as having CRP if they met ≥ 2 of the following clinical criteria: anorexia, fever, lethargy, abnormal oral mucous membrane color, abnormal WBC count, or high blood fibrinogen concentration (> 5 g/L).


Transabdominal large intestinal trocarization was performed in 190 (83%) equids, transrectal trocarization in 17 (7%), and both procedures in 21 (9%). Of 228 equids, 167 (73%) survived to hospital discharge. None died or were euthanized because of complications from large intestinal trocarization. Nonsurvival was associated with an increasing number of trocarization procedures and diagnosis of a large intestinal strangulating lesion. A diagnosis of nephrosplenic ligament entrapment of the large colon decreased the odds of nonsurvival. Twelve of 60 (20%) equids that received medical treatment only had CRP following large intestinal trocarization.


Large intestinal trocarization could be considered for equids with colic and large intestinal gas distension. More than one trocarization procedure was associated with an increase in nonsurvival, which should be considered for equids for which consent for surgery has been obtained.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) features of healthy hyaline cartilage of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of horses, to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to differentiate various stages of naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the DIPJ, and to correlate relaxation times determined by dGEMRIC with the glycosaminoglycan concentration, water content, and macroscopic and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage of DIPJs with and without osteoarthritis.

SAMPLE 1 cadaveric forelimb DIPJ from each of 12 adult warmblood horses.

PROCEDURES T1-weighted cartilage relaxation times were obtained for predetermined sites of the DIPJ before (T1preGd) and after (T1postGd) intra-articular gadolinium administration. Corresponding cartilage sites underwent macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluation, and cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were determined. Median T1preGd and T1postGd were correlated with macroscopic, histologic, and biochemical data. Mixed generalized linear models were created to evaluate the effects of cartilage site, articular surface, and macroscopic and histologic scores on relaxation times.

RESULTS 122 cartilage specimens were analyzed. Median T1postGd was lower than the median T1preGd for normal and diseased cartilage. Both T1preGd and T1postGd were correlated with macroscopic and histologic scores, whereby T1preGd increased and T1postGd decreased as osteoarthritis progressed. There was topographic variation of T1preGd and T1postGd within the DIPJ. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were significantly correlated with T1preGd and macroscopic and histologic scores but were not correlated with T1postGd.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dGEMRIC relaxation times varied for DIPJs with various degrees of osteoarthritis. These findings may help facilitate early detection of osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research