Case Description—A 2-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined because of bilateral thoracic limb weakness of acute onset.
Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included muscle atrophy, paresis, depressed spinal reflexes, hyperesthesia of the thoracic limbs, and reduced jaw muscle tone. Pelvic limb reflexes were normal. Results of a neurologic examination were suggestive of multifocal lesions involving both brachial plexuses and the trigeminal nerves. Abnormal nerve conduction across the brachial plexus and delayed late potentials were found on electrodiagnostic testing, and diffuse subclinical involvement of other regions of the peripheral nervous system was confirmed on the basis of abnormal electromyographic findings for the masticatory muscles and conduction block of the peroneal nerve.
Treatment and Outcome—No specific treatments were given, and neurologic signs resolved within a month. A relapse occurred 2 months after the first episode, with clinical signs affecting both the pelvic and the thoracic limbs on this occasion. Again, the condition resolved without specific treatment, and 13 months after the initial episode, the cat reportedly was normal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that brachial plexus neuropathy can be a multifocal disease in cats, even if clinically apparent neurologic deficits are initially subtle or absent, and that electrodiagnostic techniques can be used to identify subclinical involvement of the peripheral nerves.
Objective—To determine the dietary patterns and
intake of nutrients of concern in dogs with cardiac disease.
Animals—82 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy
(DCM) or chronic valvular disease.
Procedure—Owners of dogs were contacted and
given a standardized telephone questionnaire regarding
diet and a 24-hour food recall to determine daily
intake of calories, protein, fat, sodium, potassium,
Results—Among the 82 dogs, 71% had no congestive
heart failure (CHF), and 29% had CHF or a history
of CHF. Sixty-one percent of dogs had concurrent
diseases. Anorexia was or had been evident in 34%
of dogs and was significantly more common in the
CHF group and in dogs with DCM. Most dogs (92%)
received some treats and table food, with a median
percentage of daily calories from treats of 19%
(range, 0% to 100%). Most owners (57%) that administered
pills used human or pet foods for pill administration.
Most dogs ate more than the Association of
American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) minimum
values for fat and protein. Daily sodium intake varied
from 14 to 384 mg/100 kcal, compared with the
AAFCO minimum of 17 mg/100 kcal. A median of
25% of total daily sodium came from treats and table
food (range, 0% to 100%). Dogs with CHF ate significantly
more sodium, compared with dogs with no
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary intake
for dogs with cardiac disease is highly variable and
often not optimal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:
CASE DESCRIPTION 5 dogs were examined because of clinical signs of myelopathy, including signs of pain associated with the spinal region and rapidly progressive neurologic deficits.
CLINICAL FINDINGS In all dogs, results of MRI were consistent with spinal epidural empyema. Concurrent infectious processes were identified at adjacent or distant sites in all dogs, including diskospondylitis, prostatitis, dermatitis, paraspinal infection following a penetrating injury, urinary tract infection, and pyothorax. Bacteria were isolated from 3 dogs; Escherichia coli was isolated from blood, urine, and prostatic wash samples from 1 dog; a Pasteurella sp was isolated from a percutaneous aspirate from an adjacent infected wound in a second dog; and a Corynebacterium sp was isolated from a thoracic fluid sample from a third dog. For the remaining 2 dogs, results of bacterial culture were negative.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME All dogs showed clinical improvement within 2 weeks after initiation of antimicrobial treatment, and all had an excellent long-term outcome.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE In dogs, spinal epidural empyema has previously been regarded as a surgical emergency. Findings for dogs in the present report suggested that, as is the case for humans, selected dogs with spinal epidural empyema may be successfully managed with medical treatment alone.