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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—26 healthy green iguanas (20 males and 6 females).

Procedures—For coelomic ultrasonography, animals were physically restrained in dorsal recumbency by an assistant; chemical restraint was not used. Qualitative and quantitative observations were recorded.

Results—Structures that could be visualized in all animals included the heart and cardiac chambers; liver; caudal vena cava; hepatic veins; portal vein; gallbladder; pyloric portion of the stomach; and, when distended, urinary bladder. Visualization of the kidneys was poor. The spleen could be identified in 17 animals, and the gonads could be identified in 22, but were most easily identified in males evaluated during November (ie, during the breeding season); no females were evaluated during the breeding season. Physiologic enlargement of the testes yielded an acoustic window for the spleen by displacing overlying intestine. Anechoic, free coelomic fluid was identified in 3 animals. Measurements of overall cardiac size, ventricular wall thickness, gallbladder size, thickness of the pyloric portion of the stomach, and splenic size were obtained. Only ventricular wall thickness was significantly correlated with body weight.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasonography allowed examination of most coelomic structures in green iguanas. The procedure was easily performed and was well tolerated in conscious animals.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine fibroblast viability, assess development of apoptosis, and evaluate tissue hypoxia via histochemical, in-situ hybridization, or immunohistochemical staining in ruptured and intact cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) of dogs.

Animals—32 dogs with ruptured CCLs, and 8 aged and 19 young dogs with intact CCLs.

Procedure—Markers of cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-nick end labeling [TUNEL] method), and hypoxia (hypoxiainducible factor-1α [HIF-1α] monoclonal antibody) were applied to CCL specimens; positive cells were assessed objectively (LDH) and subjectively (TUNEL and HIF-1α) in the main axial tissue component (core) and synovial intima and subintima (epiligamentous tissue).

Results—Viable fibroblasts were seen in all intact and ruptured CCLs. More nonviable cells were found in the core regions of ruptured CCLs and intact CCLs of young dogs than in the epiligamentous regions. Number of nonviable cells in the core region of ruptured CCLs was greater than that in intact CCLs of young and aged dogs, whereas the number in the epiligamentous region was similar in all specimens. The TUNEL and HIF-1αstaining was only found in the epiligamentous region of ruptured CCLs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ruptured CCLs contained a high number of nonviable cells but not a great number of apoptotic cells. Repair processes in the epiligamentous region of the CCL include a metabolic response to hypoxia, suggesting that necrosis of ligament fibroblasts and transformation of surviving cells to a spheroid phenotype may be a response to hypoxia cause by microinjury or inadequate blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1010–1016)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—A 1-year-old sexually intact female Netherland dwarf rabbit was examined because of a 3-week history of signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, left unilateral exophthalmia, a previous draining sinus from a left maxillary facial abscess, and bilateral nasal discharge.

Clinical Findings—The rabbit weighed 1.0 kg (2.2 lb) and had a body condition score of 1.5/5. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle atrophy, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and severe left-sided exophthalmia. Diagnostic investigation revealed anemia, neutrophilia, severe dental disease, a superficial corneal ulcer of the left eye, and a retrobulbar abscess.

Treatment and Outcome—Stomatoscopy-aided dental trimming, tooth removal, and abscess debridement were performed. Antimicrobials were flushed into the tooth abscess cavity, and antimicrobial treatment was initiated on the basis of cytologic findings and results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing.Two months after the initial surgery, minimal exophthalmia was evident and no further physical, radiographic, or ultrasonographic changes were evident.

Clinical Relevance—Stomatoscopy is a valuable technique that can facilitate diagnosis, treatment, and serial reevaluation of rabbits with dental disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of diet and management factors with the glandular gastric mucosal microbiome. We hypothesize that the gastric mucosal microbial community is influenced by diet and management factors. Our specific objective is to characterize the gastric mucosal microbiome in relation to these factors.


57 client-owned horses in the southern Louisiana region with and without equine glandular gastric disease.


Diet and management data were collected via a questionnaire. Gastroscopy was used for evaluation of equine gastric ulcer syndrome and collection of glandular mucosal pinch biopsies. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used for microbiome analysis. Similarity and diversity indices and sequence read counts of individual taxa were compared between diet and management factors.


Differences were detected in association with offering hay, type of hay, sweet feed, turnout, and stalling. Offering hay and stalling showed differences in similarity indices, whereas hay type, sweet feed, and turnout showed differences in similarity and diversity indices. Offering hay, hay type, and sweet feed were also associated with differences in individual sequence read counts.


This study provides preliminary characterization of the complex relationship between the glandular gastric microbiome and diet/management factors. The ideal microbiome to promote a healthy glandular gastric environment remains unknown.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the efficacy of long-term enalapril administration in delaying the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF).

Design—Placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, randomized trial.

Animals—124 dogs with compensated mitral valve regurgitation (MR).

Procedures—Dogs randomly assigned to receive enalapril or placebo were monitored for the primary endpoint of onset of CHF for ≤ 58 months. Secondary endpoints included time from study entry to the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death; number of dogs free of CHF at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 days; and mean number of CHF-free days.

Results—Kaplan-Meier estimates of the effect of enalapril on the primary endpoint did not reveal a significant treatment benefit. Chronic enalapril administration did have a significant benefit on the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death (benefit was 317 days [10.6 months]). Dogs receiving enalapril remained free of CHF for a significantly longer time than those receiving placebo and were significantly more likely to be free of CHF at day 500 and at study end.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chronic enalapril treatment of dogs with naturally occurring, moderate to severe MR significantly delayed onset of CHF, compared with placebo, on the basis of number of CHF-free days, number of dogs free of CHF at days 500 and study end, and increased time to a combined secondary endpoint of CHF-all-cause death. Improvement in the primary endpoint, CHF-free survival, was not significant. Results suggest that enalapril modestly delays the onset of CHF in dogs with moderate to severe MR.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association