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History

A 4-year-old Holstein cow had a history of chronic emaciation and profuse brownish green diarrhea, which was entirely liquid and described as being like water from a hose. The cow was euthanized by an IV overdose sodium pentobarbital injection 5 to 6 weeks after calving because of extreme weakness.

Clinical and Gross Findings

At necropsy, the cow had a body condition score of 2 of 5 and was dehydrated. There was marked loss of muscle mass, serous atrophy of epicardial and perirenal fat depots, and fluid effusion in the abdominal cavity (1.7 L), thoracic cavity (700 mL), and pericardial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (CS) at concentrations approximating those achieved in plasma by oral administration would influence gene expression of selected mediators of osteoarthritis in cytokine-stimulated equine articular chondrocytes.

Sample Population—Samples of grossly normal articular cartilage obtained from the metacarpophalangeal joint of 13 horses.

Procedure—Equine chondrocytes in pellet culture were stimulated with a subsaturating dose of recombinant equine interleukin (reIL)-1β. Effects of prior incubation with glucosamine (2.5 to 10.0 µg/mL) and CS (5.0 to 50.0 µg/mL) on gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, -9, and -13; aggrecanase 1 and 2; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase (COX)-2; nuclear factor κB; and c-Jun- N-terminal kinase (JNK) were assessed by use of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results—Glucosamine at a concentration of 10 µg/mL significantly reduced reIL-1β–induced mRNA expression of MMP-13, aggrecanase 1, and JNK. Reductions in cytokine-induced expression were also observed for iNOS and COX-2. Chondroitin sulfate had no effect on gene expression at the concentrations tested.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concentrations of glucosamine similar to those achieved in plasma after oral administration in horses exerted pretranslational regulation of some mediators of osteoarthritis, an effect that may contribute to the cartilage- sparing properties of this aminomonosaccharide. Analysis of results of this study indicated that the influence of CS on pretranslational regulation of these selected genes is limited or lacking. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1861–1869)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research