Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for

  • Author or Editor: Paul Kubilis x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To compare heartworm serum antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) test results, using commercial laboratories and in-house heartworm test kits, with necropsy findings in a population of shelter cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—330 cats at an animal shelter.

Procedure—Between March and June 1998, 30 ml of blood was collected from the cranial and caudal venae cavae of 330 cats that were euthanatized at a local animal shelter. Results of heartworm Ab and Ag serologic tests for heartworm infection were compared with necropsy findings in this population of cats, using commercial laboratories and in-house test kits to measure serum Ab and Ag concentrations.

Results—On necropsy, adult Dirofilaria immitis were found in 19 of 330 (5.8%) cats. Combining results from serum Ab and Ag tests achieved higher sensitivities than using serum Ab and Ag test results alone (ie, maximum sensitivities of 100% vs 89.5%, respectively), whereas use of serum Ag and Ab test results alone achieved higher specificities compared with the use of a combination of serum Ab and Ag results (ie, maximum specificities of 99.4% vs 92.9%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of our findings, if a cat has clinical signs that suggest heartworm disease despite a negative heartworm serum Ab test result, an alternative heartworm Ab test, a heartworm Ag test, thoracic radiography, or two-dimensional echocardiography should be performed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:693–700)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine regional and zonal variation in sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate in normal equine corneal stroma.

Sample Population—22 normal eyes from 11 horses.

Procedure—Corneas were collected within 24 hours of death from equine necropsy specimens. After papain-chondroitinase digestion of corneal tissue, disaccharides ΔDi4S and ΔDi6S were quantified by use of capillary zone electrophoresis in the superficial, middle, and deep zones of central and peripheral regions of the cornea.

Results—For the 2 regions combined,ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values were significantly lower in the deep and middle zones, compared with that of the superficial zone. In the central region, deep and middle zones had significantly lower ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values than the superficial zone did. In the peripheral region, the deep zone had significantly lower ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values, compared with superficial and middle zones. In the deep zone, the peripheral region had significantly lower ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values than the central region did.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Distribution of ΔDi6S/ΔDi4S values follows a gradient across the healthy equine cornea, being smallest in the deep and middle zones of the central region and the deep zone of the peripheral region. Regional and zonal differences in the distribution of stromal ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S may influence the role of glycosaminoglycans in health, disease, and wound repair of the equine cornea. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:143–147)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for successful surgical management of dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 dogs managed surgically for AAS.

Procedure—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery, radiographic appearance of the dens, type (dorsal or ventral procedure) and number (1 or 2) of surgeries performed, grade of postoperative atlantoaxial joint reduction, and neurologic status prior to surgery (preoperative), when dogs were discharged from the hospital (postoperative), and during a follow-up evaluation (final) were obtained from the dogs' medical records. Risk factors for surgical success and degree of neurologic improvement were identified and analyzed for predictive potential.

Results—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities ≤ 24 months was significantly associated with greater odds of a successful first surgery and final outcome and a lower postoperative neurologic grade. Duration of clinical abnormalities ≤ 10 months was significantly associated with greater odds of a successful final outcome and a lower final neurologic grade. A preoperative neurologic grade of 1 or 2 was significantly associated with a lower final neurologic grade. Potential risk factors that did not affect odds of a successful outcome included type of surgery performed, grade of atlantoaxial joint reduction, radiographic appearance of the dens, or need for a second surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery, and preoperative neurologic status are risk factors for success of surgical management of AAS in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216:1104–1109)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To document the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) after cataract surgery in dogs.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Sample Population

88 dogs that had had cataract surgery.

Procedure

The effect of several categorical variables on the development of POH was evaluated statistically. Postoperative ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure > 25 and > 30 mm of Hg.

Results

The incidence of POH > 25 mm of Hg was 48.9%; > 30 mm of Hg, 33.8%; > 40 mm of Hg, 20.1%; and > 50 mm of Hg, 5.8%. Mean onset of POH > 25 mm of Hg was 4.9 hours. The incidence of POH was not affected by the type of surgery. Eyes that had phacoemulsification developed POH significantly more rapidly (mean, 3.9 hours), compared with those that had extracapsular lens extraction (8.4 hours). Mean phacoemulsification duration was greater in eyes that developed POH, and older dogs were more likely to develop POH. Development of POH was not correlated with sex, stage of cataract, type of surgical procedure performed, intraocular lens placement, preoperative lens-induced uveitis, or posterior lens capsule tears and vitrectomy. However, eyes that received intraocular lens implants developed POH more rapidly, compared with eyes without implants.

Clinical Implications

The high incidence and early onset of POH after cataract surgery suggests that routine use of antiglaucoma medications in the first 12 hours after surgery is warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:105–111)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare cutaneous reactivity to insect and arachnid allergens in clinically normal (control) and allergic dogs in the southeastern United States.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Animals

26 clinically normal dogs and 82 allergic dogs from the southeastern United States.

Procedure

Intradermal skin testing with various dilutions of 13 insect and arachnid allergens was performed on control dogs to establish skin threshold concentrations (ie, concentrations to which < 25% of the dogs had positive reactions). These established threshold concentrations were then used to test allergic dogs for reactivity. Prevalence of single and multiple insect and arachnid reactions were determined.

Results

Flea allergen was the only allergen that caused a significantly higher prevalence of positive reactions in allergic dogs than in control dogs.

Clinical Implications

Flea hypersensitivity is the most important arthropod hypersensitivity in dogs. The importance of reactivity to insect and arachnid allergens other than flea allergen can be determined only when prevalence of positive reactivity has been determined in an appropriate regional control group of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1431–1434)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To ascertain effects of x-ray beam centering and limb position on apparent congruity of a normal cubital joint (elbow).

Animals

6 skeletally mature male Treeing Walker Coonhounds without physical, radiographic, or gross evidence of elbow abnormalities.

Procedure

Relative movement among humerus, radius, and ulna and measured joint space width on mediolateral and craniocaudal radiographic views was compared, using various x-ray beam centering and limb positions.

Results

Highest agreement and greatest certainty on subjective determination of congruity was for the flexed 90° mediolateral radiographic view with the x-ray beam centered on the elbow. Distortion artifact of the proximal ulnar measurements was significant when the x-ray beam was centered on the midpoint of the radius. On the mediolateral view, the humeroradial joint space became significantly wide when the elbow was flexed. On the craniocaudal view, maximal humeroradial joint space width was obtained when the x-ray beam bisected the angle of the joint or was angled +30° toward the humerus.

Conclusions

Artifact distortion of joint width affected objective and subjective assessment of elbow congruity when the limb was placed in extreme flexion or extension or when the x-ray beam was not centered over the area of interest. Optimal visualization of the humeroradial joint space on the craniocaudal view was achieved when the x-ray beam bisected the angle of the elbow or was slightly angled toward the humerus.

Clinical Relevance

Elbow congruity was best assessed on the flexed 90° lateral radiographic view with the x-ray beam centered on the joint. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1351–1357)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine adverse effects of single and multiple doses of liposome-encapsulated cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R, R-1, 2-diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (L-NDDP) administered IV to healthy adult cats.

Animals

10 healthy adult cats.

Procedure

8 cats were given a single dose of L-NDDP (at rates of 75, 100, 150, or 200 mg/m2), and 2 cats were given liposomal lipid (1,500 mg/m2). Six of the 10 cats were given doses of L-NDDP at the maximum tolerated dosage (100 mg/m2) or a lower dosage (75 mg of L-NDDP/m2) at 21-day intervals, for a total of 4 treatments. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, and physical examinations were used to monitor effects of L-NDDP.

Results

All cats had transient pyrexia, lethargy, vomiting (1 to 3 times/24 h), inappetence, and an acute species-specific infusion reaction that was prevented by administration of atropine-diphenhydramine. Dose-limiting toxicosis was evident as a 10- day course of lethargy, intermittent vomiting, and diarrhea. In cats given multiple doses, dose-related thrombocytopenia, cumulative myelosuppression, transient increased hepatic transaminase activity, and mild to moderate hepatic hydropic degeneration and proximal renal tubular lipidosis in excess of lipidosis expected for this species were detected. Bone marrow hypoplasia was detected in some cats that received higher doses (cumulative dosages of 300 or 400 mg of L-NDDP/m2).

Conclusion

Cats can safely be given L-NDDP at potentially therapeutic dosages without inducing renal or pulmonary toxicoses.

Clinical Relevance

Because L-NDDP has better tumoricidal activity than cisplatin (in vivo and in vitro) and is not cross resistant, it may be similarly or more efficacious than cisplatin in humans and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:257–263)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objectives

To evaluate in vitro susceptibility to topical antifungal medications, as measured by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50%), of fungal isolates from horses with ulcerative keratomycosis in Florida; to compare results with those of other studies to identify differences in susceptibility patterns among fungi isolated from horses in different geographic regions; and to note indications of fungal resistance to drugs tested in other studies.

Sample Population

Corneal fungal cultures from client-owned horses from Florida with ulcerative keratomycosis (n = 22).

Procedure

Fungal cultures were plated on Emmons modified Sabouraud dextrose agar and mycobiotic agar, examined weekly for growth, and kept for a total of 30 days. In vitro MIC and IC50% of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and natamycin were measured for each fungal isolate.

Results

Aspergillus (n = 9; 41%), Fusarium (7; 32%), Penicillium (2; 9%), Cylindrocarpon (1; 4%), Scytalidium (1; 4%), and Torulopsis (1; 4%) spp and an unidentified yeast (1; 4%) were isolated. Fungi were most susceptible to antifungal drugs in the following order: natamycin and miconazole equally, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, although no significant difference was found among drugs. Fungi were significantly less susceptible to fluconazole (P < 0.0001) than to the other 4 drugs.

Conclusions

Initial antifungal therapy with topically applied natamycin, miconazole, itraconazole, or ketoconazole is recommended for ulcerative keratomycosis in horses in the subtropical environment of Florida.

Clinical Relevance

Specific antifungal treatment of horses with ulcerative keratomycosis should be based on history, results of ophthalmic examination, cytologic findings, isolation of the pathogenic fungus, and known prevalence of unique ocular fungi in specific geographic areas. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing may be most beneficial in aiding documentation of pharmacologic susceptibility patterns of fungi in specific geographic regions. (Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:138–142)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the risk and efficacy of pulmonary lobectomy in dogs with pneumonia.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

59 dogs with pneumonia.

Procedure

Review of medical records and telephone conversations.

Results

54.2% of dogs had resolution of pneumonia after lobectomy, 20.3% died in the perioperative period, and 25.4% survived the perioperative period but pneumonia did not resolve. Pneumonia was caused by bacteria (25 dogs), fungi (12), foreign bodies (8), parasites (1), viruses (1), and allergies (1). In 11 dogs, the etiologic agent was not isolated. Bacterial or fungal pneumonias were significantly less likely to resolve compared with foreign body pneumonia or when an etiologic agent was not isolated. Perioperative mortality rate increased significantly with an increase in number of pulmonary lobes removed. Complications during surgery significantly increased perioperative mortality rate. Surgical era (1972 to 1983 vs 1984 to 1994) was a significant predictor of mortality, with the odds of dying in the perioperative period being 11 times greater between 1972 to 1983. The odds of failure to resolve pneumonia was 3 times greater during 1972 to 1983.

Clinical Implications

Number of pulmonary lobes removed and complications during surgery significantly affect perioperative mortality rate. Identification of etiologic agents may help in predicting dogs likely to resolve pneumonia after surgery.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) and other variables as predictors of the risk of developing glaucoma after cataract surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—220 dogs that had cataract surgery.

Procedure—Medical records of 220 dogs (346 eyes) that had extracapsular cataract removal or phacoemulsification of cataracts were reviewed. With respect to glaucoma development, 8 variables were analyzed, which included development of POH, breed, sex, age at time of surgery, eye (right vs left), phacoemulsification time, intraocular lens (IOL) placement (yes or no), and stage of cataract development. Eyes developed glaucoma within 6 or 12 months of surgery or did not have signs of glaucoma at least 6 or 12 months after cataract surgery.

Results—Of 346 eyes, 58 (16.8%) developed glaucoma after surgery. At 6 months, 32 of 206 (15.5%) eyes examined had glaucoma; at 12 months, 44 of 153 (28.8%) eyes examined had glaucoma. Median follow-up time was 5.8 months (range, 0.1 to 48 months). Mixed-breed dogs were at a significantly lower risk for glaucoma, compared with other breeds. Eyes with IOL placement were at a significantly lower risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes without IOL placement. Eyes with hypermature cataracts were at a significantly higher risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes with mature or immature cataracts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple factors appear to contribute to the onset of glaucoma in dogs after cataract surgery. Complications prohibiting IOL placement during cataract surgery may lead to a high risk of glaucoma development. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1780–1786)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association