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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal anatomic site and directional aim of a penetrating captive bolt (PCB) for euthanasia of goats.

SAMPLE 8 skulls from horned and polled goat cadavers and 10 anesthetized horned and polled goats scheduled to be euthanized at the end of a teaching laboratory.

PROCEDURES Sagittal sections of cadaver skulls from 8 horned and polled goats were used to determine the ideal anatomic site and aiming of a PCB to maximize damage to the midbrain region of the brainstem for euthanasia. Anatomic sites for ideal placement and directional aiming were confirmed by use of 10 anesthetized horned and polled goats.

RESULTS Clinical observation and postmortem examination of the sagittal sections of skulls from the 10 anesthetized goats that were euthanized confirmed that perpendicular placement and firing of a PCB at the intersection of 2 lines, each drawn from the lateral canthus of 1 eye to the middle of the base of the opposite ear, resulted in consistent disruption of the midbrain and thalamus in all goats. Immediate cessation of breathing, followed by a loss of heartbeat in all 10 of the anesthetized goats, confirmed that use of this site consistently resulted in effective euthanasia.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Damage to the brainstem and key adjacent structures may be accomplished by firing a PCB perpendicular to the skull over the anatomic site identified at the intersection of 2 lines, each drawn from the lateral canthus of 1 eye to the middle of the base of the opposite ear.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the extent of damage to the skull and brain of cadaveric dairy goat kids caused by a .22-caliber, 16-g pellet fired from a multipump air pistol at various power levels.

SAMPLE

Cadavers of 8 male and 7 female dairy goat kids ≤ 5 days old.

PROCEDURES

Each cadaver was positioned in sternal recumbency with the head and neck extended on a straw bale. A multipump air pistol was held with the barrel perpendicular to and 2.5 cm from the head at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines that extended from the lateral canthus of each eye to the middle of the contralateral ear base and fired at half (5 pumps; n = 2), intermediate (7 pumps; 2), or full (10 pumps; 11) power. The head and neck were removed from the carcass for CT imaging and gross sectioning to determine the location of the pellet and extent of damage caused to the skull and brain.

RESULTS

The pellet successfully penetrated the skull of all 13 heads shot at full or intermediate power and 1 of the 2 heads shot at half power. The pellet did not fragment after entering the skull of any cadaver and penetrated the brainstem (necessary for instantaneous death) in only 7 cadavers.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The described technique was insufficient for use as a stand-alone method for euthanizing young dairy goat kids. Modification of the technique warrants further research to determine whether air pistols can be used to effectively euthanize young goat kids.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902.

Animals—51 female guinea pigs.

Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged IP with C jejuni IA3902; 48 hours later, animals were euthanized, complete necropsy was performed, and blood and tissue samples were obtained for bacteriologic culture.

Results—Administration of vaccine B or the experimental bacterin, but not vaccine A, significantly reduced 48-hour infection rates versus administration of the sham vaccine. A significantly reduced 48-hour infection rate was associated with administration of vaccine B independent of pregnancy status.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of vaccine B significantly reduced infection in guinea pigs challenged with C jejuni IA3902, similar to a homologous bacterin. Results suggested that vaccine B or an autogenous product may be effective in controlling ovine campylobacteriosis caused by this emergent abortifacient strain. Bacteriologic culture of blood, liver, bile, and uterus in nonpregnant guinea pigs 48 hours after inoculation may be a useful screening tool for comparing efficacy of C jejuni vaccines.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare pathogenicity of an emergent abortifacient Campylobacter jejuni (IA 3902) with that of reference strains after oral inoculation in pregnant guinea pigs.

Animals—58 pregnant guinea pigs.

Procedures—12 animals were challenged IP with C jejuni IA 3902 along with 5 sham-inoculated control animals to confirm abortifacient potential. Once pathogenicity was confirmed, challenge via oral inoculation was performed whereby 12 guinea pigs received IA 3902, 12 received C jejuni isolated from ovine feces (OF48), 12 received a fully sequenced human C jejuni isolate (NCTC 11168), and 5 were sham-inoculated control animals. After abortions, guinea pigs were euthanized; samples were collected for microbial culture, histologic examination, and immunohistochemical analysis.

ResultsC jejuni IA 3902 induced abortion in all 12 animals following IP inoculation and 6 of 10 animals challenged orally. All 3 isolates colonized the intestines after oral inoculation, but only IA 3902 induced abortion. Evidence of infection existed for both IA 3902 and NCTC 11168; however, C jejuni was only recovered from fetoplacental units of animals inoculated with IA 3902. Immunohistochemical analysis localized C jejuni IA 3902 infection to subplacental trophoblasts, perivascular tissues, and phagocytes in the placental transitional zone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed that C jejuni IA 3902 was a unique, highly abortifacient strain with the ability to colonize the intestines, induce systemic infection, and cause abortion because of its affinity for the fetoplacental unit. Guinea pigs could be effectively used in the study of septic abortion after oral inoculation with this Campylobacter strain.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To present, analyze, and discuss stakeholders’ opinions regarding sharing antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) data from animals into a centralized database and dashboard tool that would collect, aggregate, store, and analyze this type of data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) across the country.

SAMPLE

1 in-person focus group (9 participants), 9 virtual focus groups (49 participants), and online pre- and postmeeting surveys (76 and 35 participants, respectively).

METHODS

Focus groups and surveys were conducted to assess the opinions of veterinarians, producers, researchers, diagnosticians, and government officials.

RESULTS

A strong majority of stakeholders recognize AMR as a serious concern for both human and animal health and see several benefits in establishing a centralized AMR database; however, several concerns were raised associated with data confidentiality, security, curation, and harmonization. In the interest of alleviating those concerns, among other items, stakeholders suggested education and training of data users, providers, and the public in addition to assuring strong data confidentiality protections.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Stakeholder engagement is a critical component of all stages of development, implementation, and utilization of an AMR database and dashboard tool that could be used to inform antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary medicine. This assessment of stakeholders’ needs and concerns can be used to help guide future recommendations for data legal protections as well as a data confidentiality and security framework. Maintaining open communication on data usage, storage, and security as well as involvement and education of data providers, users, and the public will remain key to enabling development of an AMR database and dashboard tool for domesticated animals.

Open access

Objective

To determine patterns of fecal shedding of feline coronavirus (FCV) by cats, age at which kittens first began to shed FCV in their feces, and whether there was any relationship between fecal shedding of FCV and serum antibody titers in adult cats or kittens.

Design

Prospective observational study.

Animals

15 adult cats and 18 kittens from a single cattery.

Procedure

Blood and fecal samples were collected from adult cats every other month for 13 months. Serum FCV antibody titers were measured by use of an indirect immunofluorescence assay. A reverse-transcriptase, nested polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect FCV in feces. Blood and fecal samples were collected from kittens at approximately 2-week intervals from 3 weeks to 15 weeks of age.

Results

Adult cats shed FCV intermittently. All adult cats shed virus in their feces at least once during the year, and 4 of 15 shed virus > 75% of the time. Serum antibody titer was not significantly associated with shedding of FCV. For the kittens, median age at the time FCV was first detected in feces was 67 days (range, 33 to 78 days). All except 1 of the kittens was found to be shedding virus in their feces before or at the time of seroconversion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that serum FCV antibody titers are not a good indicator of shedding of FCV in the feces. Kittens may shed FCV in their feces before they seroconvert, and all kittens in a cattery in which FCV infection is endemic may be infected before 12 weeks of age. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:948–951)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy of tulathromycin for prevention of abortion in pregnant ewes when administered within 24 hours after experimental inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni.

ANIMALS

20 pregnant ewes between 72 and 92 days of gestation.

PROCEDURES

All ewes were inoculated with a field strain of C jejuni (8.5 × 108 to 10.6 × 108 CFUs, IV). Eighteen hours later, ewes received either tulathromycin (1.1 mL/45 kg [2.4 mg/kg], SC; n = 10) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1.1 mL/45 kg, SC; sham; 10). Ewes were euthanized immediately after observation of vaginal bleeding, abortion, or completion of a 21-day observation period. Necropsy was performed on all ewes, and tissue specimens were obtained for bacterial culture and histologic examination.

RESULTS

1 sham-treated ewe and 1 tulathromycin-treated ewe developed signs of severe endotoxemia and were euthanized within 24 hours after C jejuni inoculation. Seven sham-treated and 2 tulathromycin-treated ewes developed vaginal bleeding or aborted and were euthanized between 4 and 21 days after C jejuni inoculation. The proportion of tulathromycin-treated ewes that developed vaginal bleeding or aborted during the 21 days after C jejuni inoculation (2/9) was significantly less than that for the sham-treated ewes (7/9).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that administration of tulathromycin to pregnant ewes following exposure to C jejuni was effective in decreasing the number of C jejuni–induced abortions. Because of concerns regarding the development of macrolide resistance among Campylobacter strains, prophylactic use of tulathromycin in sheep is not recommended.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure antibody titers against bovine coronavirus (BCV), determine frequency of BCV in nasal swab specimens, and compare calves treated for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) between those given an intranasally administered vaccine and control calves.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—414 heifer calves.

Procedure—Intranasal BCV antigen concentration and antibody titer against BCV were measured on entry to a feedlot. Calves were randomly assigned to receive 3.0 mL of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine enteric coronavirus and rotavirus or 3.0 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Calves were confined to 1 of 2 pens, depending on vaccination status, for a minimum of 17 days of observation (range, 17 to 99). Selection of calves for treatment of BRD and scoring for severity of disease were done by veterinarians unaware of treatment status.

Results—Intranasal BCV (125/407 [31%]) and serum antibody titers ≥ 20 against BCV (246/396 [62%]) were identified in calves entering the feedlot. Vaccination was associated with significant decrease in risk of treatment for BRD; intranasal BCV on entry to the feedlot was associated with increased risk of treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that control calves with intranasal BRD on entry to the feedlot and those with antibody titer < 20 were significantly more likely to be treated for BRD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data provide further evidence of an association between BCV and respiratory tract disease in feedlot calves. An intranasally administered vaccine appeared to reduce risk of treatment for BRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:726–731)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association