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Summary:

Prevalence and morphologic features of the apical delta in the canine teeth of dogs were determined to assist clinicians in the endodontic treatment of these teeth. Eighty-two canine teeth from mixed-breed dogs were cleared and dyed to outline root canal ramifications. Apical deltas were classified according to location in the dental arch, number of ramifications, and vertical extent of these ramifications from the apical terminus. A classification system was devised to aid in identification and treatment of the delta. Recommendations were made regarding indications for conventional and/or surgical endodontic therapy depending on the type of delta encountered. Apical deltas were detected in 69.5% of the canine teeth studied. Surgical endodontic intervention should be seriously considered when the delta is found to extend a distance > 1 mm from the apical terminus.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To examine the role of apoptosis in retinal photoreceptor degeneration in dogs with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS).

Sample Population

Retinas from 3 dogs with SARDS and from 2 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure

Apoptosis was identified by in situ endlabeling and observation of characteristic morphologic changes by light microscopy.

Results

The degree of photoreceptor degeneration varied with duration of vision loss in SARDS-affected eyes. The retina of all 3 SARDS-affected eyes had numerous (34, 61, and 70) apoptotic nuclei per section that were overwhelmingly located in the outer nuclear layer. Apoptotic nuclei were not detected, or were rare in similarly sized retinal sections from normal dogs. Inflammation was not an important feature of SARDS.

Conclusions

Apoptosis appears to be at least 1 mechanism of photoreceptor cell death in dogs with SARDS.

Clinical Relevance

Because apoptosis appears to be a final common pathway in many retinal degeneration syndromes, future treatment strategies that control apoptosis in other diseases may be applicable to dogs with SARDS. Halting this pathway may allow some photoreceptors to survive and, perhaps, preserve vision. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:149–152)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of orally administered aspirin to mitigate 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced respiratory tract disease and reduced rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—244 beef cattle.

Procedure—In a masked, randomized, controlled field trial, calves were untreated (controls) or received a single orally administered dose of aspirin (31.2 g) on entry into a feedlot. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured on days 0, 3, and 6. Rumen 3MI concentration was measured on day 3. Cattle were observed daily for clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Lungs were evaluated at slaughter for gross pulmonary lesions.

Results—Mean daily gain (MDG) in cattle treated with aspirin, compared with control cattle, was 0.06 kg greater in the backgrounding unit and 0.03 kg greater for the overall feeding period. Neither serum nor rumen 3MI concentrations appeared to modify this effect. Cattle treated with aspirin were more likely to be treated for respiratory tract disease. Mortality rate, gross pulmonary lesions, and serum and rumen 3MI concentrations were similar between groups. Increased rumen 3MI concentration was associated with a small difference in risk of lung fibrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle given a single orally administered dose of aspirin on feedlot entry had higher MDG in the backgrounding unit and for the overall feeding period, but this finding could not be attributed to mitigation of effects of 3MI. This may have been influenced by low peak 3MI production and slow rates of gain. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1209–1213)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether immunity against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) mitigates the effects of 3-methylindole (3MI) on occurrence of bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) and rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—254 mixed-breed beef cattle.

Procedure—Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at the time of arrival at the feedlot. One group was vaccinated with an inactivated BRSV vaccine, another was vaccinated with a modified-live BRSV vaccine, and the third was maintained as unvaccinated control cattle. On days 0 and 28, serum BRSV antibody concentrations were measured, using serum neutralizing and ELISA techniques. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured at feedlot arrival and 3 days later. Cattle were monitored for development of BRD. At slaughter, lungs were evaluated grossly for chronic lesions.

Results—Higher serum 3MI concentrations early in the feeding period were associated with lower mean daily gain. Control cattle were more likely to be treated for BRD after day 3, compared with cattle vaccinated with the modified-live BRSV vaccine. Humoral immunity against BRSV did not appear to modify the effect of 3MI on development of BRD or mean daily gain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that abrogating the effects of 3MI and BRSV infection may improve the health and growth performance of feedlot cattle. However, in this study, immunity against BRSV did not appear to protect against the potential synergism between 3MI and BRSV infection, possibly because of the slow rates of gain of cattle included in the study or timing of sample collection. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1309–1314)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the potential synergy between bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and 3-methylindole (3MI) in inducing respiratory disease in cattle.

Animals

20 mixed-breed beef calves.

Procedure

A 2 × 2 factorial design was used, with random assignment to the following 4 treatment groups: unchallenged control, BRSV challenge exposure (5 × 104 TCID50 by aerosolization and 5.5 × 105 TCID50 by intratracheal inoculation), 3MI challenge exposure (0.1 g/kg of body weight, PO), and combined BRSV-3MI challenge exposure. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Serum 3MI concentrations, WBC counts, PCV, total plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations were determined throughout the experiment. Surviving cattle were euthanatized 7 days after challenge exposure. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at postmortem examination.

Results

Clinical respiratory disease was more acute and severe in cattle in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group than in cattle in the other groups. All 5 cattle in this group and 3 of 5 cattle treated with 3MI alone died or were euthanatized prior to termination of the experiment. Mean lung displacement volume was greatest in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group. Gross and histologic examination revealed that pulmonary lesions were also most severe for cattle in this group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Feedlot cattle are commonly infected with BRSV, and 3MI is produced by microflora in the rumen of all cattle. Our results suggest that there is a synergy between BRSV and 3MI. Thus, controlling combined exposure may be important in preventing respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:563–570)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association