Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Paul Daly x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate the pathogenesis of Greyhound meningoencephalitis by evaluating gene expression in diseased brain tissue.

Animals—Cadavers of 3 diseased (8- to 15-month-old) and 3 (10-month-old) control Greyhounds.

Procedures—Samples of RNA were extracted from brain tissue of all dogs and evaluated by use of a canine-specific microarray.

Results—A unique profile involving significant alterations in expression of 21 genes was evident in diseased dogs, compared with expression in control dogs. Most genes with up-regulated expression were related to immune function, with the remaining genes involved in ligand binding, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and formation and transportation of proteins including enzymes. Of notable involvement were genes encoding for major histocompatibility complexes, small inducible cytokine A5 precursor, myxovirus-resistant proteins, and components of the classical complement pathway, which are all genes common to pathways of viral infections and autoimmunity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although results of microarray analysis did not clearly define a potential etiology of Greyhound meningoencephalitis, they did highlight a consistent gene alteration signature that would suggest a common etiology and pathogenesis for this condition.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To use mathematical modeling to assess the effectiveness of control strategies for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus on a swine farm.

Sample—A hypothetical small, medium, or large farrow-to-weaning swine farm in the Midwestern United States.

Procedures—Stochastic models were formulated to simulate an outbreak of PRRS on a farm. Control strategies assessed in those models included none (baseline) and various combinations of mass immunization, herd closure, and gilt acclimatization. Nine different models resulting from the combination of low, moderate, or high PRRS virus virulence and small, medium, or large herd size were simulated. A stabilized status, the outcome of interest, was defined as the absence of positive PCR assay results for PRRS virus in 3-week-old piglets. For each scenario, the percentage of simulations with a stabilized status was used as a proxy for the probability of disease control.

Results—Increasing PRRS virus virulence and herd size were negatively associated with the probability of achieving a stabilized status. Repeated mass immunization with herd closure or gilt acclimitization was a better alternative than was single mass immunization for disease control within a farm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Repeated mass immunization with a PRRS modified-live virus vaccine with herd closure or gilt acclimitization was the scenario most likely to achieve a stabilized status. Estimation of the cost of various PRRS control strategies is necessary.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—Severe disease and death were identified in cattle exhibited at a state fair that were naturally infected with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2).

Clinical Findings—Most affected cattle had anorexia, signs of depression, diarrhea, fever, and respiratory distress ultimately leading to death. Mean duration of clinical signs prior to death was 6 days (range, 1 to 26 days). Mean number of days between apparent exposure and death was 71 days (range, 46 to 139 days).

Treatment and Outcomes—19 of 132 cattle cohoused in 1 barn died of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The diagnosis of sheep-associated MCF was confirmed on the basis of results of an OvHV-2–specific PCR assay performed on tissue samples obtained from affected cattle. The disease was associated but not significantly with distance from the center of the barn and was not associated with distance from the center of the sheep pens.

Clinical Relevance—Outbreaks of MCF in cattle are unusual, particularly in association with livestock exhibitions. Because the clinical signs may be similar to those of some transboundary diseases, cases of MCF should be reported and investigated. Findings for this outbreak provided evidence to suggest that fair boards and veterinarians should reexamine biosecurity recommendations for livestock exhibitions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty-eight herds participating in the 1988/1989 Ohio National Animal Health Monitoring System dairy project were monitored for 1 year to determine the effects of environment and management on mortality in preweaned calves. Environmental factors were evaluated by veterinarians during monthly visits to the herds. Management procedures were measured through the use of a questionnaire administered near the end of the project. Mortality in preweaned calves was calculated for each herd by using data from project records on calf mortality and animal inventory, which were collected monthly by veterinarians. Relationships between the management/environment variables and calf mortality were examined by use of analysis of covariance. Herd size, days on a nipple feeder, navel disinfection, type of housing, and whether each calf observed with diarrhea was treated with antibiotics were the variables that had an impact on herd mortality. These variables explained approximately 39% of the variation in mortality among herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Dairy herds in Ohio were selected by stratified random sampling for participation in a disease-monitoring study to relate Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary prevalence to herd management and environmental conditions. Of 48 herds studied, 27 herds had at least 1 cow infected with this pathogen. Management and environmental conditions were assessed by direct observation as well as by an interview with the dairy producers. One-way anova or χ2 analysis, with presence or absence of Streptococcus agalactiae as the dependent variable, was used to test each of 70 independent variables. Variables found significant at P < 0.20 were further evaluated by use of logistic regression. Our sample size permitted only 4 independent variables to be simultaneously evaluated by logistic regression. The most predictive risk factors were identified as poor teat and udder hygiene, poor environmental sanitation, large herd population, and use of a shared washcloth for premilking cleaning of teats and udders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To estimate herd prevalence of Salmonella spp, fecal specimens were obtained for culture from neonatal calves of 47 Ohio dairy herds. Of the 452 calves tested, 10 calves from 7 farms were culturepositive. Salmonella serotypes isolated were S dublin, S typhimurium, S enteritidis, S agona, S mbandaka, and S montevideo. Bulk tank milk filters from these dairies were also submitted for culture. Salmonella sp was isolated from 1 of the 50 filters, and 2 calves from this herd were found to be shedding Salmonella sp of the same serotype.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old).

PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but < 8 hours (all birds). Half-life of the terminal slope was 3.41 hours. No adverse effects were detected.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Butorphanol was absorbed well from the But-P407 25% by Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol tartrate and butorphanol tartrate in a sustained-release 25% poloxamer 407 (P407) gel formulation (But-P407) in parrots.

ANIMALS

13 orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

PROCEDURES

First, butorphanol tartrate (5 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM to birds in a randomized complete crossover design. The temperature prompting a foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus (ie, the thermal threshold) was determined 30 minutes before (baseline) and at various points after treatment administration. Second, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or P407 was administered SC in a similar crossover design. Thermal threshold was determined before and at various points after treatment administration. Third, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or saline solution was administered SC and evaluated as in the second trial. Sedation was scored immediately before each time point in all 3 trials.

RESULTS

In the first trial, a significant increase in thermal threshold was noted 30 minutes after butorphanol tartrate (vs saline solution) administration. No sedation was noted. In the second and third trials, no significant difference was identified between results for But-P407 and those for either control treatment (saline solution or P407). Mild sedation was noted in the second trial following But-P407 administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested a small but significant thermal antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate lasting between 30 minutes and 1.5 hours in orange-winged Amazon parrots. No antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate was demonstrated when delivered in P407. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential analgesic effects of But-P407.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether selection for the homozygous A136R171 genotype that confers resistance to classic scrapie infection negatively affects production traits in sheep.

Animals—996 commercial lambs obtained from 2 flocks at separate locations across 3 consecutive years.

Procedures—Genotyping at codon 136 and 171 was performed by use of commercially available testing or a single-nucleotide polymorphism assay. Carcass data were collected without knowledge of genotype approximately 24 hours after slaughter by an experienced grader. The model to analyze associations between prion protein (PRNP) genotype and production traits was based on genotype, breed, or both as fixed effects and days on feed as a covariate.

Results—Average daily gain was significantly associated with only combined codons 136 and 171. In flock 1, weaning average daily gain was significantly greater in AA136 sheep than heterozygotes; the difference between QR171 and RR171 sheep, compared with QQ171 sheep, were not significant although QR171 and RR171 sheep had higher values. However, in flock 2, average daily gain was significantly greater in AV136 sheep than AA136 sheep and in QR171 sheep than QQ171 sheep.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest there is an advantage for average daily gain in lambs with an arginine allele at codon 171, but there were no other genotype effects on production traits. Thus, selection for the resistant arginine allele at codon 171 to comply with USDA scrapie eradication guidelines should not be detrimental to lamb production in commercial flocks. Effects of codon 136 on average daily gain were ambiguous.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate surfactant protein D (SP-D) concentrations in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from young healthy horses on pasture or housed in a typical barn.

ANIMALS

20 young healthy horses.

PROCEDURES

Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (pasture, n = 10; barn, 10), and serum and BALF samples were collected for SP-D determination at baseline (all horses on pasture) and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the barn group of horses was relocated from the pasture to the barn. Other evaluations included physical and tracheoscopic examinations. Findings were compared within and between groups.

RESULTS

Physical and tracheoscopic examinations, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis did not reveal evidence of respiratory disease, and no significant differences were present within and between groups. Serum SP-D concentrations did not significantly differ within and between groups, but BALF SP-D concentrations were significantly lower for the barn group at 2 weeks but not at 4 weeks, compared with baseline. The BALF SP-D concentration-to-BALF total protein concentration ratio was < 1.5 and did not significantly differ within and between groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A mild decrease was evident in the concentration of SP-D in the BALF collected from young healthy horses after 2 weeks of exposure to a barn environment. The clinical importance of this finding remains to be determined.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research