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Objective—To evaluate auditory maturation in puppies.

Animals—Ten clinically normal Beagle puppies.

Procedure—Puppies were examined repeatedly from days 11 to 36 after birth (8 measurements). Clickevoked brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) were obtained in response to rarefaction and condensation click stimuli from 90 dB normal hearing level to wave V threshold, using steps of 10 dB. Responses were added, providing an equivalent to alternate polarity clicks, and subtracted, providing the rarefaction-condensation differential potential (RCDP). Steps of 5 dB were used to determine thresholds of RCDP and wave V. Slope of the low-intensity segment of the wave V latency-intensity curve was calculated. The intensity range at which RCDP could not be recorded (ie, pre-RCDP range) was calculated by subtracting the threshold of wave V from threshold of RCDP.

Results—Slope of the wave V latency-intensity curve low-intensity segment evolved with age, changing from (mean ± SD) –90.8 ± 41.6 to –27.8 ± 4.1 μs/dB. Similar results were obtained from days 23 through 36. The pre-RCDP range diminished as puppies became older, decreasing from 40.0 ± 7.5 to 20.5 ± 6.4 dB.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Changes in slope of the latency-intensity curve with age suggest enlargement of the audible range of frequencies toward high frequencies up to the third week after birth. Decrease in the pre-RCDP range may indicate an increase of the audible range of frequencies toward low frequencies. Age-related reference values will assist clinicians in detecting hearing loss in puppies. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1343–1348)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate a laparoscopic technique for implantation of a urinary catheter in the right paramedian area in male sheep and to determine feasibility, benefits, and risks for this technique.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—6 healthy male sheep (mean ± SD body weight, 42.16 ± 11.95 kg [92.75 ± 26.29 lb]).

Procedures—Each sheep was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 10-mm laparoscope was inserted in the right paramedian area between the xiphoid and preputial orifice. After creation of capnoperitoneum, grasping forceps were inserted in the left paramedian area at the level of the teats and used to immobilize the urinary bladder. A pigtail balloon catheter was implanted transcutaneously in the right paramedian area between the preputial orifice and teats and directed into the urinary bladder by use of laparoscopic guidance. The catheter was removed 10 days after implantation. Fourteen days after initial surgery, a second laparoscopy was performed to evaluate pathologic changes.

Results—Inadvertent insertion of the first trocar into the rumen of 1 sheep was the only intraoperative complication encountered. Laparoscopic-assisted implantation of the urinary catheter was successfully performed in all sheep. No postoperative complications were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic-assisted implantation of a urinary catheter in the right paramedian area was successfully performed and may be a feasible method for use in sheep. This method can be considered as an alternative to tube cystotomy performed by laparotomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association