Objective—To evaluate auditory maturation in puppies.
Animals—Ten clinically normal Beagle puppies.
Procedure—Puppies were examined repeatedly from
days 11 to 36 after birth (8 measurements). Clickevoked
brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP)
were obtained in response to rarefaction and condensation
click stimuli from 90 dB normal hearing level to
wave V threshold, using steps of 10 dB. Responses
were added, providing an equivalent to alternate polarity
clicks, and subtracted, providing the rarefaction-condensation
differential potential (RCDP). Steps of 5
dB were used to determine thresholds of RCDP and
wave V. Slope of the low-intensity segment of the
wave V latency-intensity curve was calculated. The
intensity range at which RCDP could not be recorded
(ie, pre-RCDP range) was calculated by subtracting the
threshold of wave V from threshold of RCDP.
Results—Slope of the wave V latency-intensity curve
low-intensity segment evolved with age, changing
from (mean ± SD) –90.8 ± 41.6 to –27.8 ± 4.1 μs/dB.
Similar results were obtained from days 23 through
36. The pre-RCDP range diminished as puppies
became older, decreasing from 40.0 ± 7.5 to 20.5 ±
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Changes in
slope of the latency-intensity curve with age suggest
enlargement of the audible range of frequencies
toward high frequencies up to the third week after
birth. Decrease in the pre-RCDP range may indicate
an increase of the audible range of frequencies
toward low frequencies. Age-related reference values
will assist clinicians in detecting hearing loss in puppies.
(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1343–1348)
Objective—To evaluate a laparoscopic technique for implantation of a urinary catheter in the right paramedian area in male sheep and to determine feasibility, benefits, and risks for this technique.
Animals—6 healthy male sheep (mean ± SD body weight, 42.16 ± 11.95 kg [92.75 ± 26.29 lb]).
Procedures—Each sheep was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 10-mm laparoscope was inserted in the right paramedian area between the xiphoid and preputial orifice. After creation of capnoperitoneum, grasping forceps were inserted in the left paramedian area at the level of the teats and used to immobilize the urinary bladder. A pigtail balloon catheter was implanted transcutaneously in the right paramedian area between the preputial orifice and teats and directed into the urinary bladder by use of laparoscopic guidance. The catheter was removed 10 days after implantation. Fourteen days after initial surgery, a second laparoscopy was performed to evaluate pathologic changes.
Results—Inadvertent insertion of the first trocar into the rumen of 1 sheep was the only intraoperative complication encountered. Laparoscopic-assisted implantation of the urinary catheter was successfully performed in all sheep. No postoperative complications were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic-assisted implantation of a urinary catheter in the right paramedian area was successfully performed and may be a feasible method for use in sheep. This method can be considered as an alternative to tube cystotomy performed by laparotomy.