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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate in vitro transdermal absorption of fentanyl from patches through skin samples obtained from various anatomic regions of dogs.

Sample Population—Skin samples from 5 Greyhounds.

Procedure—Skin samples from the dogs' thoracic, neck, and groin regions were collected postmortem and frozen. After samples were thawed, circular sections were cut and placed in Franz-type diffusion cells in a water bath (32°C). A commercial fentanyl patch, attached to an acetate strip with a circular hole, was applied to each skin sample. Cellulose strips were used as control membranes. Samples of receptor fluid in the diffusion cells were collected at intervals for 48 hours, and fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Mean ± SD release rate of fentanyl from the patch, defined by its absorption rate through the non–rate-limiting cellulose membrane, was linear during the first 8 hours (2.01 ± 0.05 µg/cm2 of cellulose membrane/h) and then decreased. Fentanyl passed through skin from the groin region at a faster rate and with a significantly shorter lag time, compared with findings in neck or thoracic skin samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro, fentanyl from a patch was absorbed more quickly and to a greater extent through skin collected from the groin region of dogs, compared with skin samples from the thoracic and neck regions. Placement of fentanyl patches in the groin region of dogs may decrease the lag time to achieve analgesia perioperatively; however, in vivo studies are necessary to confirm these findings.( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1697–1700)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of various vehicles on the penetration and retention of hydrocortisone applied to canine skin.

Sample Population—20 canine skin samples obtained from the thorax, neck, and groin regions of 5 Greyhounds.

Procedure—Skin was harvested from dogs after euthanasia and stored at –20°C until required. The skin was then defrosted and placed into diffusion cells, which were maintained at approximately 32°C by a water bath. Saturated solutions of hydrocortisone that contained trace amounts of radiolabelled [14C]-hydrocortisone in each vehicle (ie, PBS solution [PBSS] alone, 50% ethanol [EtOH] in PBSS [wt/wt], and 50% propylene glycol in PBSS [wt/wt]) were applied to the outer (stratum corneum) surface of each skin sample, and aliquots of receptor fluid were collected for 24 hours and analyzed for hydrocortisone.

Results—The maximum flux of hydrocortisone was significantly higher for all sites when dissolved in a vehicle containing 50% EtOH, compared with PBSS alone or 50% propylene glycol, with differences more prominent in skin from the neck region. In contrast, higher residues of hydrocortisone were found remaining within the skin when PBSS alone was used as a vehicle, particularly in skin from the thorax and neck.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Penetration of topically applied hydrocortisone is enhanced when EtOH is used in vehicle formulation. Significant regional differences (ie, among the thorax, neck, and groin areas) are also found in the transdermal penetration and skin retention of hydrocortisone. Variability in clinical response to hydrocortisone can be expected in relation to formulation design and site of application. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:43–47)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate penetration of a topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) into tissues and synovial fluid.

Animals—5 Greyhounds.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized and microdialysis probes placed in the dermis and gluteal muscle over each coxofemoral (hip) joint. Methylsalicylate (MeSA) was applied topically over the left hip joint. Dialysate and plasma (blood samples from the cephalic and femoral veins) were obtained during the subsequent 5 hours. Dogs were euthanatized, and tissue samples and synovial fluid were collected and analyzed for salicylic acid (SA) and MeSA by use of highpressure liquid chromatography.

Results—SA and MeSA concentrations increased rapidly (< 30 minutes after application) in dialysate obtained from treated dermis. Salicylic acid also appeared in plasma within 30 minutes and reached a plateau concentration after 2 hours, although combined drug concentrations (SA plus MeSA) in plasma obtained from femoral vein samples were twice those measured in plasma obtained from the cephalic vein (SA only). Treated muscle had a progressive decrease in NSAID concentration with increasing depth (SA and MeSA), but it was significantly higher than the concentration in untreated muscle. Substantial amounts of SA and MeSA were also measured in synovial fluid of treated joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topically applied NSAIDs can penetrate deeply into tissues and synovial fluid. Local concentrations higher than circulating systemic concentrations are suggestive that direct diffusion and local blood redistribution are contributing to this effect. Systemic blood concentrations may be inadequate to describe regional kinetics of topically applied drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1128–1132)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the impact of a free-choice diet on nutritional intake and body condition of feral horses.

Animals—Cadavers of 41 feral horses from 5 Australian locations.

Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) was determined (scale of 1 to 9), and the stomach was removed from horses during postmortem examination. Stomach contents were analyzed for nutritional variables and macroelement and microelement concentrations. Data were compared among the locations and also compared with recommended daily intakes for horses.

Results—Mean BCS varied by location; all horses were judged to be moderately thin. The BCS for males was 1 to 3 points higher than that of females. Amount of protein in the stomach contents varied from 4.3% to 14.9% and was significantly associated with BCS. Amounts of water-soluble carbohydrate and ethanol-soluble carbohydrate in stomach contents of feral horses from all 5 locations were higher than those expected for horses eating high-quality forage. Some macroelement and microelement concentrations were grossly excessive, whereas others were grossly deficient. There was no evidence of ill health among the horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the diet for several populations of feral horses in Australia appeared less than optimal. However, neither low BCS nor trace mineral deficiency appeared to affect survival of the horses. Additional studies on food sources in these regions, including analysis of water-soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-soluble carbohydrate, and mineral concentrations, are warranted to determine the provenance of such rich sources of nutrients. Determination of the optimal diet for horses may need revision.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine solar load-bearing structures in the feet of feral horses and investigate morphological characteristics of the sole in feral horses and domestic Thoroughbreds.

Sample—Forelimbs from cadavers of 70 feral horses and 20 domestic Thoroughbreds in Australia.

Procedures—Left forefeet were obtained from 3 feral horse populations from habitats of soft substrate (SS [n = 10 horses]), hard substrate (HS [10]), and a combination of SS and HS (10) and loaded in vitro. Pressure distribution was measured with a pressure plate. Sole depth was measured at 12 points across the solar plane in feet obtained from feral horses from SS (n = 20 horses) and HS (20) habitats and domestic Thoroughbreds (20).

Results—Feet of feral horses from HS habitats loaded the periphery of the sole and hoof wall on a flat surface. Feral horses from HS or SS habitats had greater mean sole depth than did domestic Thoroughbreds. Sole depth was greatest peripherally and was correlated with the loading pattern.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The peripheral aspect of the sole in the feet of feral horses had a load-bearing function. Because of the robust nature of the tissue architecture, the hoof capsule of feral horses may be less flexible than that of typical domestic horses. The application of narrow-web horseshoes may not take full advantage of the load-bearing and force-dissipating properties of the peripheral aspect of the sole. Further studies are required to understand the effects of biomechanical stimulation on the adaptive responses of equine feet.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the density of the primary epidermal lamellae (PEL) around the solar circumference of the forefeet of near-term fetal feral and nonferal (ie, domesticated) horses.

Sample—Left forefeet from near-term Australian feral (n = 14) and domesticated (4) horse fetuses.

Procedures—Near-term feral horse fetuses were obtained from culled mares within 10 minutes of death; fetuses that had died in utero 2 weeks prior to anticipated birth date and were delivered from live Thoroughbred mares were also obtained. Following disarticulation at the carpus, the left forefoot of each fetus was frozen during dissection and data collection. In a standard section of each hoof, the stratum internum PEL density was calculated at the midline center (12 o'clock) and the medial and lateral break-over points (11 and 1 o'clock), toe quarters (10 and 2 o'clock), and quarters (4 and 6 o'clock). Values for matching lateral and medial zones were averaged and expressed as 1 density. Density differences at the 4 locations between the feral and domesticated horse feet were assessed by use of imaging software analysis.

Results—In fetal domesticated horse feet, PEL density did not differ among the 4 locations. In fetal feral horse feet, PEL density differed significantly among locations, with a pattern of gradual reduction from the dorsal to the palmar aspect of the foot. The PEL density distribution differed significantly between fetal domesticated and feral horse feet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that PEL density distribution differs between fetal feral and domesticated horse feet, suggestive of an adaptation of feral horses to environment challenges.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of various environmental conditions on the degree of hydration in hoof wall horn tissue from feral horses and investigate the effect of short-term foot soaking on moisture content in hoof wall and sole tissue in domestic horses.

Animals—40 feral horses from 3 environments (wet and boggy [n = 10], partially flooded [20], and constantly dry desert [10]) and 6 nonferal Quarter Horses.

Procedures—The percentage of moisture content of hoof wall samples from feral horses was measured in vitro. In a separate evaluation, the percentage of moisture content of hoof wall and sole tissue was measured in the dry and soaked forefeet of Quarter Horses.

Results—Mean ± SD percentage of moisture content was 29.6 ± 5.1%, 29.5 ± 5.8%, and 29.5 ± 2.9% for feral horses from the wet and boggy, partially flooded, and constantly dry desert environments, respectively. Moisture content did not differ among the 3 groups, nor did it differ between dry and soaked hoof wall samples from nonferal horses. However, soaking in water for 2 hours resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of moisture content of the sole.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental conditions do not appear to affect moisture content in the hoof wall horn. Soaking horses' feet regularly in water would be unlikely to change the degree of hydration in the hoof wall horn but may further hydrate the sole.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research