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Abstract

Objective—To compare gastric emptying time, smallintestinal transit time (SITT), and orocecal transit time (OCTT) of radiopaque markers in dogs varying in age and body size and to determine whether fecal variables (ie, consistency and moisture content) are related to gastrointestinal tract transit times in dogs.

Animals—24 eight-week-old female puppies, including 6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—Gastrointestinal tract transit time experiments were performed at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed 30 small radiopaque markers mixed with a meal. Abdominal radiographs were taken. The time at which 50% of the markers had left the stomach (T50) and the time at which the first marker reached the colon were calculated. Fecal moisture content and scoring on the basis of fecal consistency were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Puppies had a shorter mean T50 than adults, and mean OCTT decreased significantly only during growth of large-breed dogs. However mean fecal moisture content significantly increased with age, except in Giant Schnauzers. No effect of body size on T50 was found regardless of age, and no difference was observed between OCTT of small- and large-breed adult dogs. The effect of age on the mean SITT was not significant for any breed. However, a strong positive correlation was recorded between body size and fecal moisture content (r2 = 0.77) or fecal scores (r2 = 0.69) in adult dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age affects T50 in small- and large-breed dogs and OCTT in largebreed dogs. However, body size does not affect T50 or OCTT. A relationship does not exist between gastrointestinal tract transit time and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:677–682)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of age and body size of dogs on intestinal permeability (unmediated diffusion) as measured by the ratio of urinary lactulose to L-rhamnose (L:R) and absorption (carrier-mediated transport) as measured by the ratio of urinary D-xylose to 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (X:MG) and to determine whether these variables correlated with fecal quality.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—A solution that contained lactulose and rhamnose or xylose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was administered orally to dogs that were 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks old. Urine was collected 6 hours later, and urinary L:R and X:MG were calculated. Fecal moisture and scoring were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Age and breed did not affect intestinal absorption, and we did not detect a relationship between X:MG and fecal variables. In contrast, we detected significant effects of age and body size on intestinal permeability. Puppies (12 weeks old) and large dogs had higher intestinal permeability than adult (60 weeks old) and small dogs. The increased intestinal permeability in large dogs was associated with lower fecal quality as indicated by the significant positive correlations between L:R and fecal moisture (r, 0.61) and L:R and fecal scores (r, 0.86) in adult dogs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results indicate that age and body size should be considered when assessing intestinal permeability by use of the L:R urinary excretion test in dogs. High intestinal permeability could be a possible cause of poor fecal quality in large dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1323–1328)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare large intestinal transit time (LITT) in dogs of various body sizes and determine whether fecal quality was correlated with LITT.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—LITT was calculated as the difference between total (TTT) and orocecal transit time (OCTT). Minimum and mean OCTTs were determined by use of the sulfasalazine-sulfapyridine method. Minimum TTT was estimated by use of chromium and ferric oxide as color markers, and mean TTT was calculated from the recovery from feces of ingested colored plastic beads. Fecal moisture content was determined and fecal consistency was scored during the same period.

Results—Large-breed dogs had higher fecal moisture content and more watery fecal consistency. No association between body size and OCTT was detected, but there was a positive correlation between body size and mean TTT. Mean LITT increased significantly with body size, from 9.1 ± 1.1 hours in Miniature Poodles to 39.4 ± 1.6 hours for Giant Schnauzers. Significant correlations were detected among mean LITT, mean TTT, and fecal scores, whereas no correlation was observed between fecal moisture content and TTT or LITT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LITT was correlated with fecal consistency in dogs of various body sizes. Mean LITT can be predicted from values for mean TTT in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dietary fat and energy density on body weight gain, body composition, and total energy expenditure (TEE) in neutered and sexually intact cats.

Animals—12 male and 12 female cats

Procedure—Male cats were castrated (castrated male [CM]) or underwent no surgical procedure (sexually intact male [IM]). Female cats underwent ovariectomy (spayed female [SF]) or laparotomy and ligation of both uterine tubes without ovary removal (sexually intact female [IF]). Cats were fed either the low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks, with the final allocation consisting of 8 groups: IF-LF, IF-HF, SF-LF, SF-HF, IM-LF, IM-HF, CM-LF, and CM-HF. Mean food intake for each group was recorded daily, and body weight was monitored weekly throughout the study. Body composition and TEE were measured before surgery in week 0 and at the end of the study (week 26) by isotope dilution (double-labelled water).

Results—Neutered cats gained significantly more body fat and body weight (53.80 ± 5.79%) than sexually intact cats (27.11 ± 5.79%) during the study. Body weight gain of neutered cats fed the HF diet was greater than those fed the LF diet. Following correction for body composition, TEE was similar in all groups and no pattern towards increased food intake was evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Weight gain in neutered cats was decreased by feeding an LF, low energy-dense diet. To prevent weight gain in cats after neutering, a suitable LF diet should be fed in carefully controlled meals rather than ad libitum. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1708–1713)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare orocecal transit time (OCTT) as assessed by use of the sulfapyridine appearance time in plasma after oral administration of sulfasalazine in dogs of varying age and body size and determine whether OCTT correlates with fecal quality.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles (MP), 6 Standard Schnauzers (SS), 6 Giant Schnauzers (GS), and 6 Great Danes (GD).

Procedure—Determinations of OCTT were made at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed sulfasalazine mixed with a meal. Blood samples were then collected for 6 hours. The OCTT was the time from ingestion of the meal to detection of sulfapyridine in plasma. Fecal moisture content and consistency were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Mean OCTT decreased during growth of GS and GD dogs. No correlation was found between OCTT and fecal variables during growth in the 4 breeds. Effect of body size was observed at 12 and 22 weeks of age, with a longer OCTT in GS and GD than in MP and SS dogs. Similar OCTTs were observed at 36 and 60 weeks of age in all breeds, although GS and GD dogs had poorer fecal quality during those periods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An effect of age on OCTT was observed only in large-breed dogs, with longer transit times in puppies (12 weeks old) than in adults (60 weeks old). Mean OCTT is not correlated with body size in adult dogs. No relationship was detected between OCTT and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1105–1109)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance (resistance and reactance) and morphological variables and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBWd).

ANIMALS 26 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables including body length, height, weight, and thoracic and abdominal circumferences.

RESULTS Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW1 = −0.019 (BL2/R) + −0.199 (RC + AC) + 0.996W + 0.081H + 12.31; and TBW2 = 0.048 (BL2/R) + −0.144 (RC + AC) + 0.777W + 0.066H + 0.031X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight, and × is reactance. Results for TBW1 (R 2 1 = 0.843) and TBW2 (R 2 2 = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBWd. When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBWd and TBW1 and TBW2 were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBWd, making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate energy expenditure (EE) in dogs by estimating rate of CO2 production (rCO2).

Animals—15 Beagles.

Procedure—Food was withheld for 24 hours, and all dogs received an IV infusion of 13C sodium bicarbonate for 8 hours. Breath samples were collected before infusion and at 30-minute intervals from 4 to 8 hours, and 13C enrichment in breath CO2 was measured, using gas chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. Food was withheld from 6 dogs, and rCO2 and O2 consumption were measured, using a conventional indirect calorimeter. The CO2 production and O2 consumption were measured by use of indirect calorimetry in 6 other fed dogs that were injected with 2H2O and H2 18O. Blood samples were collected before tracer injection, 4 hours later, and on days 4, 7, and 11. Deuterium and 18O enrichments in plasma water were determined.

Results—Mean rCO2 measured by indirect calorimetry was 516 ± 34 and 410 ± 16 µmol/kg0.75/min in 6 fed and 6 food-deprived dogs, respectively. The rCO2 calculated from 13C-bicarbonate dilution was 482 ± 30 µmol/kg0.75/min. Mean rCO2 determined by use of the double-labeled water method was 1,036 ± 46 mmol/kg0.75/d. Mean energy expenditure calculated from rCO2 determined by infusion of 13C bicarbonate, indirect calorimetry in fed and food-deprived dogs, and infusion of double-labeled water was 386 ± 39, 379 ± 25, 338 ± 14, and 552 ± 25 kJ/kg0.75/d, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Energy expenditure calculated by indirect calorimetry in unfed dogs can be considered representative of basal metabolic rate. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:111–118)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify risk factors for fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—465 hospitalized horses with gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—Horses were classified as positive or negative for fecal Salmonella shedding during hospitalization by means of standard aerobic bacteriologic methods. The relationship between investigated exposure factors and fecal Salmonella shedding was examined by means of logistic regression.

Results—The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding was 13%. Salmonella serotype Newport was the most commonly isolated serotype (12/60 [20%]), followed by Anatum (8/60 [13%]), Java (13%), and Saint-paul (13%). Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were 3.27 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Adult horses that had been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization were 3.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that had not been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization. Adult horses that underwent abdominal surgery were 2.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that did not undergo abdominal surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a history of exposure to antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization and abdominal surgery during hospitalization were associated with Salmonella shedding in adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms than were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:275–281)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association