OBJECTIVE To investigate regional differences of relative metabolite concentrations in the brain of healthy dogs with short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3.0 T.
ANIMALS 10 Beagles.
PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel 1H MRS was performed at the level of the right and left basal ganglia, right and left thalamus, right and left parietal lobes, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. Data were analyzed with an automated fitting method (linear combination model). Metabolite concentrations relative to water content were obtained, including N-acetyl aspartate, total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the sum of glutamine and glutamate (glutamine-glutamate complex), and glutathione. Metabolite ratios with creatine as the reference metabolite were calculated. Concentration differences between right and left hemispheres and sexes were evaluated with a Wilcoxon signed rank test and among various regions of the brain with an independent t test and 1-way ANOVA.
RESULTS No significant differences were detected between sexes and right and left hemispheres. All metabolites, except the glutamine-glutamate complex and glutathione, had regional concentrations that differed significantly. The creatine concentration was highest in the basal ganglia and cerebellum and lowest in the parietal lobes. The N-acetyl aspartate concentration was highest in the parietal lobes and lowest in the cerebellum. Total choline concentration was highest in the basal ganglia and lowest in the occipital lobe.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Metabolite concentrations differed among brain parenchymal regions in healthy dogs. This study may provide reference values for clinical and research studies involving 1H MRS performed at 3.0 T.
OBJECTIVE To describe the perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.
ANIMALS 11 healthy adult Beagles.
PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen. On the MRI images, a region of interest (ROI) was established for each of 6 structures (aorta, caudal vena cava, portal vein, hepatic parenchyma, splenic parenchyma, and skeletal [epaxial] muscle). The signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images, and the normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma. Dogs also underwent abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate samples and biopsy specimens were obtained from the liver for cytologic and histologic examination.
RESULTS Cytologic and histologic results suggested that the liver was clinically normal in all dogs. Perfusion-weighted MRI parameters varied among the 6 ROIs. The mean ± SD ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 0.84 × 10−3 mm2/s ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s, and the mean normalized ADC for the liver was 1.8 ± 0.4.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs. Additional studies on dogs of various breeds with and without hepatopathies are necessary to validate and refine these findings.
Case Description—A 3-year-old French Bulldog was evaluated because of acute signs of back pain and spastic paraparesis.
Clinical Findings—Neuroanatomic localization indicated a lesion in the T3-L3 spinal cord segment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extradural spinal cord compression at the ventral right aspect of the intervertebral disk space L3–4. On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of sequestrated Hansen type 1 disk extrusion without extradural hemorrhage was made.
Treatment and Outcome—The dog was treated conservatively with cage rest, restricted exercise on a leash, and NSAIDs. Results of follow-up examination 5 weeks later indicated complete resolution of clinical signs, and results of repeated MRI indicated a 69% reduction in the volume of the herniated disk material.
Clinical Relevance—Findings for the dog of this report indicated spinal cord compression attributable to extruded intervertebral disk material resolved. Functional improvements in dogs with such problems may be partly attributable to spontaneous regression of intervertebral disk extrusions.
Objective—To investigate clinical use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and to compare metabolic brain bioprofiles of dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy.
Animals—6 dogs with hepatic encephalopathy and 12 control dogs.
Procedures—Conventional MRI and single-voxel 1H MRS were performed with a 3-T magnet. Images for routine MRI planes and sequences were obtained. Single-voxel 1H MRS was performed with a point-resolved sequence with a short echo time (35 milliseconds) and voxel of interest placement at the level of the basal ganglia. Metabolites of interest included the glutamine-glutamate complex (sum quantification of glutamate and glutamine), myoinositol, N-acetyl aspartate, total choline, and creatine. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software, and metabolite concentration relative to water and ratios with creatine as the reference metabolite were calculated.
Results—Compared with control dogs, dogs with hepatic encephalopathy had specific changes, which included significantly higher concentration relative to water of the glutamine-glutamate complex and significantly lower concentration of myoinositol. Choline and N-acetyl aspartate concentrations were also slightly lower in dogs with hepatic encephalopathy than in control dogs. No differences in creatine concentration were detected between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1H MRS aided in the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs, and findings supported the assumption that ammonia is a neurotoxin that manifests via glutamine-glutamate complex derangements. Use of 1H MRS may provide clinically relevant information in patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy, equivocal results of bile acids tests, and equivocal ammonia concentrations or may be helpful in monitoring efficacy of medical management.
Objective—To characterize the ultrasonographic appearance of the canine esophagus.
Animals—14 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) examinations were performed with a radial ultrasonographic gastrovideoscope in anesthetized dogs. Images were obtained at 3-cm intervals along the esophageal length to allow evaluation of the esophageal wall. Images were obtained with the probe in direct contact with the esophageal wall and with a water-filled balloon as a standoff.
Results—Images were obtained with (12 dogs) and without (10) the water-filled balloon. Median thickness of the esophageal wall was 2.19 mm (range, 1.03 to 5.62 mm) in the proximal third of the esophagus, 2.15 mm (range, 1.10 to 4.45 mm) in the middle third, and 2.84 mm (range, 1.35 to 5.92 mm) in the distal third. Wall thickness differed significantly between proximal and distal thirds. Results were similar when the water-filled balloon was used. Esophageal wall layers appeared as 5 alternating hyperechoic and hypoechoic bands that could not be consistently identified in all dogs. All layers could be identified in 26 of 198 (13%) images, 3 layers could be identified in 67 of 198 (34%) images, and 105 of 198 (53%) images had no layers. Visual identification of layers in images obtained with and without the balloon did not differ significantly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—EUS appeared to be a useful technique for assessing esophageal wall integrity in dogs; however, complete evaluation of all layers could not be accomplished in all instances. Further studies with this technique in dogs are needed.
OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3.0 T.
ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs.
PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel 1H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same 1H MRS technique.
RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE1H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs.
To evaluate agreement in results obtained with an MRI-based grading scheme and a macroscopic observation-based grading scheme when used to assess intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration in cats.
241 MRI and 143 macroscopic images of singular IVDs in 44 client-owned cats (40 cadaveric and 4 live).
Singular images of IVDs were obtained of live cats admitted for treatment of suspected neurologic disease (MRI images of IVDs) and of cadavers of cats euthanized for reasons unrelated to spinal disease (MRI and macroscopic images of IVDs) at the Small Animal Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich, Switzerland, between January 12, 2015, and October 19, 2015. The IVD images were randomized and evaluated twice by 4 observers for each grading scheme. Inter- and intraobserver reliability for the grading schemes was assessed with Cohen weighted κ analysis. Agreement and correlation between results obtained with the 2 grading schemes were determined with Cohen weighted κ and Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) analyses, respectively.
Inter- and intraobserver agreement between results was substantial to almost perfect (mean weighted κ, 0.66 to 0.83 and 0.71 to 0.86, respectively) for the MRI-based grading scheme and moderate to substantial (mean weighted κ, 0.42 to 0.80 and 0.65 to 0.79, respectively) for the macroscopic observation-based grading scheme. Between the 2 grading schemes, agreement in results was moderate (mean ± SE weighted κ, 0.56 ± 0.05), and the correlation was strong (ρ = 0.73).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the MRI-based and macroscopic observation-based grading schemes used in the present study could be used reliably for classifying IVD degeneration in cats.
Objective—To determine the effects of body position and extension of the neck and extremities on CT measurements of ventilated lung volume in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).
Design—Prospective crossover-design study.
Animals—14 adult red-eared slider turtles.
Procedures—CT was performed on turtles in horizontal ventral recumbent and vertical left lateral recumbent, right lateral recumbent, and caudal recumbent body positions. In sedated turtles, evaluations were performed in horizontal ventral recumbent body position with and without extension of the neck and extremities. Lung volumes were estimated from helical CT images with commercial software. Effects of body position, extremity and neck extension, sedation, body weight, and sex on lung volume were analyzed.
Results—Mean ± SD volume of dependent lung tissue was significantly decreased in vertical left lateral (18.97 ± 14.65 mL), right lateral (24.59 ± 19.16 mL), and caudal (9.23 ± 12.13 mL) recumbent positions, compared with the same region for turtles in horizontal ventral recumbency (48.52 ± 20.08 mL, 50.66 ± 18.08 mL, and 31.95 ± 15.69 mL, respectively). Total lung volume did not differ among positions because of compensatory increases in nondependent lung tissue. Extension of the extremities and neck significantly increased total lung volume (127.94 ± 35.53 mL), compared with that in turtles with the head, neck, and extremities withdrawn into the shell (103.24 ± 40.13 mL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vertical positioning of red-eared sliders significantly affected lung volumes and could potentially affect interpretation of radiographs obtained in these positions. Extension of the extremities and neck resulted in the greatest total lung volume.
Objective—To determine angles of insertion for laminar vertebral fixation of L1 and L2 by use of a locking plate in dogs and to confirm screw placement by use of computed tomography (CT).
Sample—Vertebral specimens harvested from 8 canine cadavers.
Procedures—The point of insertion and minimum and maximum insertion angles for laminar and facet screws for laminar vertebral stabilization were determined by use of CT. A precontoured locking plate was then placed by use of 1 locking screw in the lamina of each lumbar vertebra and 1 nonlocking screw in the facet joint. The position and angle of the screws were examined by use of CT, and penetration into the vertebral canal was recorded.
Results—Mean ± SD insertion angles for L1 and L2 were 18 ± 4° and 21 ± 5° toward the vertebral canal and 11 ± 4.4° and 10 ± 3° in a dorsal direction, respectively. Insertion angles for the facet joint were between 24 ± 4° ventrally and 12 ± 2° dorsally. Insertion of the screw did not penetrate the vertebral canal for 23 of 24 (96%) screws. For 23 of 24 inserted screws, the previously determined angle was maintained and purchase of bone and cortices was satisfactory.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of laminar and facet screws in canine vertebrae was possible and can be performed safely if angles of insertion determined pre-operatively via CT are maintained.
OBJECTIVE To compare stroke volume (SV) calculated on the basis of cardiac morphology determined by MRI and results of phase-contrast angiography (PCA) of ventricular inflow and outflow in dogs.
ANIMALS 10 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Cardiac MRI was performed twice on each Beagle. Cine gradient echo sequences of both ventricles in short-axis planes were used for morphological quantification of SVs by assessment of myocardial contours. From the long-axis plane, SVs in 4-chamber and left ventricular 2-chamber views were acquired at end diastole and end systole. For calculation of SV on the basis of blood flow, PCA was performed for cardiac valves.
RESULTS Mean ± SD values for SV quantified on the basis of blood flow were similar in all valves (aortic, 17.8 ± 4.1 mL; pulmonary, 17.2 ± 5.4 mL; mitral, 17.2 ± 3.9 mL; and tricuspid, 16.9 ± 5.1 mL). Morphological quantification of SV in the short-axis plane yielded significant differences between left (13.4 ± 2.7 mL) and right (8.6 ± 2.4 mL) sides. Morphological quantification of left ventricular SV in the long-axis plane (15.2 ± 3.3 mL and 20.7 ± 3.8 mL in the 4- and 2-chamber views) yielded variable results, which differed significantly from values for flow-based quantification, except for values for the morphological 4-chamber view and PCA for the atrioventricular valves, for which no significant differences were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In contrast to quantification based on blood flow, calculation on the basis of morphology for the short-axis plane significantly underestimated SV, probably because of through-plane motion and complex right ventricular anatomy.