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  • Author or Editor: Patrick Boerlin x
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Objective—To determine the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs with indwelling urinary catheters in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the frequency of multi–drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli UTIs in those dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—All dogs in the ICU with an indwelling urinary catheter from January 2003 through December 2003.

Procedures—Urine samples and rectal swab specimens were collected at admission and every 3 days until discharge from the hospital. Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples and rectal swab specimens and those from dogs that were temporally or spatially associated with dogs with MDR E coli UTIs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on MDR isolates from urine and rectal swab specimens.

Results—Urinary catheters were placed in 137 dogs. Twenty-six UTIs were diagnosed, 15 on the day of admission and 11 after 3 or more days of catheterization. Of 12 dogs with E coli UTIs, 6 were infected at admission and 6 acquired the infection in the ICU. Two MDR E coli UTIs were detected, 1 of which was acquired in the ICU. One MDR E coli urinary isolate had an electrophoresis pattern similar to that of rectal isolates from the same dog. Urinary E coli isolates were most frequently resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ICU-acquired MDR E coli UTI likely originated from the dog's intestinal flora during hospitalization. Dogs that have been referred from a community practice may have MDR E coli UTIs at the time of admission.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether duration of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a veterinary teaching hospital was associated with prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among rectal Escherichia coli isolates from dogs, whether antimicrobial treatment was associated with prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, and whether there were associations among antimicrobial drugs to which isolates were resistant.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—116 dogs hospitalized in an ICU for ≥ 3 days.

Procedures—Rectal swab specimens were obtained every 3 days and submitted for bacterial culture for E coli. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents by means of disk diffusion.

Results—For each additional day that a dog was hospitalized in the ICU, the odds of being colonized with an E coli isolate resistant to 1 or more of the 12 antimicrobials tested increased by a factor of 1.5, independent of antimicrobial treatment. Dogs that were treated with enrofloxacin were 25.6 times as likely to be colonized by a quinolone-resistant E coli strain as were dogs that did not receive any antimicrobials. Significant correlations were found for resistance to agents in the extended-spectrum cephalosporin group and the quinolone group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the proportion of rectal E coli isolates obtained from dogs housed for ≥ 3 days in a veterinary teaching hospital ICU that were resistant to antimicrobial agents increased as the duration of hospitalization in the ICU increased. Thus, ICU hospitalization time should be as short as possible to prevent development of antimicrobial resistance among rectal E coli isolates.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association