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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Ovulation has been likened to an inflammatory process. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the ovulating follicle, presumably because of chemotactic factors. Chemotactic activity was measured in fluid aspirated from follicles of estrous mares 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours after ultrasonographic detection of a 35-mm follicle and iv treatment with 2,500 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin. Chemotaxis was assessed by measuring directional migration of equine neutrophils under agarose. Follicular fluid acted as a chemoattractant for neutrophils, but there was no significant difference in chemotactic activity among different time intervals after administration of human chorionic gonadotropin. On the basis of results of various treatments, chemotactic properties of serum and follicular fluid were similar. Chemotactic activity was significantly reduced by heating (56 C for 30 minutes) and by trypsinization and was virtually removed by charcoal treatment. Dialyzing the follicular fluid (3,500 and 8,000 molecular weight cut-off) significantly reduced the chemotactic activity of follicular fluid and serum. The importance of chemotactic factors in the process of ovulation in the mare is yet to be established.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe a standing hand-assisted laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in a mare.


A 15-year-old maiden Oldenburg mare.


The mare was presented for evaluation of bucking under saddle and uncharacteristic aggressive behavior. Evaluation of a 24-hour video of the mare in a stall showed behavior consistent with caudal visceral abdominal discomfort. Reproductive evaluation revealed a pyometra secondary to complete transluminal cervical adhesions. The mare was initially managed medically with disruption of the adhesions and uterine lavage, but the adhesions reformed within 6 weeks and could not be manually disrupted.


To eliminate the recurrence of pyometra, the mare underwent standing hand-assisted laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy through bilateral flank incisions. The only complication was a seroma at 1 flank incision that resolved after drainage.


Complete ovariohysterectomy in the mare is a challenging procedure and has previously been performed under general anesthesia. This is the first report of the procedure being performed completely in the standing mare without inversion of the uterus through the cervix.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Management of urolithiasis in horses varies depending on the size and number of calculi, their location in the urinary tract, sex of the patient, and availability of surgical facilities.

  • The recommended method for removal of cystic calculi in stallions and geldings is surgery; however, medical treatment consisting of lavaging the bladder and administering antibiotics and antiinflammatory drugs may be successful if the calculi are small.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association