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  • Author or Editor: Patricia Montoliu x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical and neurologic signs, diagnostic investigations, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of dogs presented with acute onset central cord syndrome (CCS).

ANIMALS

74 client-owned dogs evaluated for CCS at 5 referral hospitals between January 2016 and March 2021.

PROCEDURES

Data were collected from the medical records of each dog, including patient signalment, physical and neurologic examination results, presence of signs of respiratory failure, diagnostic imaging findings, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment and follow-up information. Descriptive statistics were calculated and bivariable analysis was performed to identify associations between selected variables.

RESULTS

2 neuroanatomic locations for the CCS were identified: C1-C5 spinal cord segments in 65 of 74 (88%) dogs and C6-T2 in 9 (12%) dogs. Neurolocalization did not correlate with the imaging findings in 43 (58%) dogs. Different diseases were associated with CCS. The most common condition was Hansen type I disk herniation in 27 (36%) dogs and hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion in 16 (22%) dogs. Main lesion locations within the vertebral column associated with CCS were C3-C4 and C4-C5 intervertebral disk spaces in 21 (28%) and 18 (24%) dogs, respectively. Outcome was favorable in 69 (93%) dogs. Patients presenting with hypoventilation were 14.7 times more likely to have a poor outcome.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CCS in dogs may be seen with lesions in the C1-C5 and C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Etiologies are variable. Total or partial improvement was achieved in most dogs with the appropriate treatment. Hypoventilation was associated with death.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of presumed postictal changes (PC) on brain MRI in epileptic dogs, describe their distribution, and recognize possible correlations with different epilepsy features.

ANIMALS

540 client-owned dogs with epilepsy and a complete medical record that underwent brain MRI at 4 veterinary referral hospitals between 2016 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

Data were collected regarding signalment, seizure type, seizure severity, time between last seizure and MRI, and etiological classification of epilepsy. Postictal changes were considered when solitary or multiple intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions were observed on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and were hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted sequences, which were not confined to a vascular territory and showed no to mild mass effect and no to mild contrast enhancement.

RESULTS

Sixty-seven dogs (12.4%) showed MRI features consistent with PC. The most common brain sites affected were the piriform lobe, hippocampus, temporal neocortex, and cingulate gyrus. Dogs having suffered cluster seizures or status epilepticus were associated with a higher probability of occurrence of PC, compared to dogs with self-limiting seizures (OR 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 4.30). Suspected PC were detected both in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and in those with structural epilepsy. Dogs with unknown-origin epilepsy were more likely to have presumed PC than were dogs with structural (OR 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.33) or idiopathic epilepsy (OR 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.87). Time between last seizure and MRI was significantly shorter in dogs with PC.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MRI lesions consistent with PC were common in epileptic dogs, and the brain distribution of these lesions varied. Occurrence of cluster seizures or status epilepticus, diagnosis of unknown origin epilepsy, and lower time from last seizure to MRI are predictors of suspected PC.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association