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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Gastric dilatation in horses may be primary (eg, engorgement, Gastrophilus sp infection), secondary (eg, to obstruction or ileus), or idiopathic, and may result in rupture.

  • Nasogastric intubation does not necessarily prevent gastric rupture.

  • Gastric rupture in horses usually is associated with gross contamination of the peritoneal cavity and death.

  • Successful surgical repair of gastric rupture in horses usually is limited to those horses in which the gastric mucosa is still intact.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate pharmacokinetics of a high dose of gentamicin administered IV or IM to horses.

Design—

Repeated-measures study.

Animals—

6 clinically normal female adult stock-type horses.

Procedure—

All horses were given gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg [3 mg/lb] of body weight), IV and IM, in a two-way cross-over design. Serum gentamicin concentrations were measured during a 24-hour period.

Results—

Plasma concentration curves were consistent with a two-compartment model. Maximum plasma gentamicin concentrations were 71.9 ± 15.7 μg/ml (0 hours after injection) and 22.0 ± 4.9 μg/ml (1.31 hours after injection) for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) was 116.6 ± 14.5 and 116.3 ± 14.6 μg•h/ml for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Elimination half-life for the IV group was 3.0 ± 2.8 hours. Trough concentrations were < 2 μg/ml for > 15 and > 12 hours for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Significant changes were not detected in clinicopathologic variables before and after administration of gentamicin.

Clinical Implications—

Administration of a high dose of gentamicin IV or IM resulted in peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and minimum trough plasma concentrations. Results indicate once-daily administration of gentamicin might be as efficacious and safe as multiple-dose daily administration in accordance with traditional low-dose regimens, similar to those used in other species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1007-1011)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association