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  • Author or Editor: Patricia J. Luttgen x
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To assess signalment, clinical signs, results of CSF analysis, treatment, and survival times in dogs with granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) and to identify factors associated with survival.


Retrospective study.

Sample Population

Medical records of 42 dogs with GME.


Information on signalment, neurolocalization, presence of focal or multifocal signs, results of CSF analysis, method of treatment, and time from onset of clinical signs to death was retrieved from medical records of each dog. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess survival times. The Cox proportional hazards method was used to identify predictors of survival.


Females and toy and terrier breeds were predisposed to GME. Half of the dogs had focal neurologic signs, and half had multifocal involvement. Clinical signs referable to the forebrain were most common with focal involvement, whereas signs referable to the forebrain and brainstem were most commonly seen with multifocal involvement. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis commonly revealed a mononuclear pleocytosis. Survival times ranged from 1 to > 1,215 days. Significant differences in survival times were demonstrated for the following factors: focal versus multifocal clinical signs, neurolocalization of focal signs, and treatment with radiation. Radiation was the only independent predictor of survival.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with signs suggesting focal involvement of GME tend to survive longer than those with multifocal involvement. Radiation is an effective treatment for dogs with GME, particularly those with clinical signs suggesting focal involvement. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1902–1906)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association