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  • Author or Editor: Patricia A. Schenck x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether total serum calcium (tCa) or adjusted tCa concentrations accurately predict ionized calcium (iCa) status in dogs.

Sample Population—1,633 canine serum samples.

Procedure—The tCa concentration was adjusted for total protein (TP) or albumin concentration by use of published equations. Correlations between iCa and tCa or adjusted tCa, tCa and TP, and tCa and albumin were calculated. Diagnostic discordance between tCa or adjusted tCa and iCa was determined. Diagnostic discordance in predicting iCa was also determined for 490 dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative diagnostic likelihood ratios were calculated for tCa, tCa adjusted for TP, and tCa adjusted for albumin.

Results—Diagnostic discordance was 27% when tCa concentration was used to predict iCa status. Use of adjusted tCa increased diagnostic discordance to approximately 37% for all dogs and 55% for dogs with CRF. Positive predictive value and positive diagnostic likelihood ratios were poor when tCa concentration was used to predict iCa status. The tCa concentration overestimated normocalcemia and underestimated hypocalcemia. Adjusted tCa overestimated hypercalcemia and underestimated hypocalcemia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adjusted tCa or tCa concentrations are unacceptable for predicting iCa status in dogs. Use of adjustment equations is not recommended. Direct measurement of iCa concentration is necessary for accurate assessment of calcium status. Use of tCa or adjusted tCa concentrations to predict iCa status in dogs could cause serious mistakes in diagnosis and case management, especially in dogs with CRF. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1330–1336)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of calcium (total [tCa], ionized [iCa], protein-bound [pCa], and complexed [cCa]) in dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF).

Animals—23 dogs with CRF.

Procedure—Serum calcium was fractionated by use of a micropartition system. Total calcium and iCa concentrations and pH were measured in unfractionated serum, and tCa concentration was measured in the ultrafiltrate. The pCa fraction was calculated by subtracting tCa of the ultrafiltrate from tCa concentration of unfractionated serum. The iCa concentration in unfractionated serum was subtracted from tCa concentration in the ultrafiltrate to determine the concentration of cCa.

Results—Concentrations of tCa, iCa, pCa, and cCa had wide ranges among dogs with CRF. Dogs with significantly low tCa concentration (7.70 ± 1.73 mg/dL) had cCa concentration (0.76 ± 0.38 mg/dL) within reference range, whereas dogs with reference range to high tCa concentration (10.85 ± 1.13 mg/dL) had significantly high cCa concentration (2.62 ± 1.04 mg/dL). There was no significant difference in iCa or pCa concentrations between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concentrations of tCa, iCa, cCa, and pCa varied widely in dogs with CRF. Overall, cCa concentration was high, although subpopulations differed in cCa and tCa concentrations. Differences in tCa concentration were primarily attributable to differences in cCa fraction. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1181–1184)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or body condition and serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, or triglyceride in healthy dogs.

Animals—62 healthy adult client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Body condition score and percentage of body fat were determined. Blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for total lipid determination, fatty acid analysis, and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride. Associations between the outcome variables (adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations) and each of several variables (age, sex, percentage of body fat, and concentrations of total lipid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) were determined.

Results—Serum concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid were significantly positively associated with concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and negatively associated with concentrations of triglyceride. Serum concentrations of α-linolenic acid were significantly positively associated with concentrations of triglyceride. No significant associations were detected between serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid and any of the outcome variables. Percentage of body fat was significantly positively associated with concentrations of leptin, insulin, and triglyceride but was not significantly associated with adiponectin concentration. Age was positively associated with concentrations of leptin, insulin, and triglyceride and negatively associated with concentrations of adiponectin. Sex did not significantly affect serum concentrations for any of the outcome variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Docosapentaenoic acid may increase serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and decrease serum triglyceride concentration in healthy dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats.

Animals—56 healthy adult client-owned cats.

Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol.

Results—1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 [21]) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research