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SUMMARY

Samples of pleural fluid from 20 horses with effusive pleural diseases of various causes were evaluated; samples from 19 horses were used for the study. There were differences for pH (P = 0.001) and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2 ) between arterial blood and nonseptic pleural fluid (P = 0.0491), but there were no differences for pH, Po2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2 ), and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3 -), lactate, and glucose between venous blood and nonseptic pleural fluid. Paired comparisons of venous blood and nonseptic pleural fluid from the same horse indicated no differences.

There were differences (P = 0.0001, each) for pH, Po2 , Pco2 , and concentrations of HCO3 - between arterial blood and septic pleural fluid. Differences also existed for pH (P = 0.0001), Pco2 (P = 0.0003), and concentrations of HCO3 - (P = 0.0001), lactate (P = 0.0051), and glucose (P = 0.0001) between venous blood and septic pleural fluid. Difference was not found for values of Po2 between venous blood and septic pleural fluid, although 4 samples of septic pleural fluid contained virtually no oxygen. Paired comparisons of venous blood and septic pleural fluid from the same horse revealed differences (P < 0.05) for all values, except those for Po2 .

These alterations suggested functional and physical compartmentalization that separated septic and healthy tissue. Compartmentalization and microenvironmental factors at the site of infection should be considered when developing therapeutic strategies for horses with septic pleural disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

Laboratory reference values, including hematologic and serum biochemical variables, and oropharyngeal bacteria flora, were determined in a group of captive Ball Pythons (Python regius).

Animals

20 adult Ball Pythons, weighing between 700 and 1,510 g, were allowed to acclimate at the recommended temperature range for the species (25 C nighttime, up to 30 C daytime), then were evaluated for internal parasites and treated with appropriate medication prior to the start of the study.

Procedure

Hematologic values determined included WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma protein, and differential cell count. Clinical biochemical analysis included determination of glucose, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate transaminase values. In addition to blood values, oropharyngeal swab specimens of the mouth were submitted for culture to determine the species of bacteria found in this population. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each hematologic and clinical biochemical value. Mean, SEM, and ranges were calculated.

Results

Hematologic values were similar to those reported in other snake species, except the hematocrit, which was lower. Clinical biochemical values different from those of other species were alkaline phosphatase activity, which was lower, and calcium and phosphorus concentrations, which were lower than values in other species. Bacteria isolated from the oropharynx were principally gram-negative organisms.

Conclusion

Reference intervals reported in this study are important for establishing a database for comparative studies of Ball Pythons in other locations and under different husbandry conditions.

Clinical Relevance

Accumulated laboratory reference values will assist veterinarians in assessing the health status of Ball Pythons. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1304-1307)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ten healthy dogs and 10 dogs with multicentric lymphoma were given a single dose of l-asparaginase at a rate of 10,000 IU/m2 of body surface. Assessment of concentrations of contributors to the coagulation process and of the ability to coagulate including antithrombin III, one-stage prothrombin time, prothrombin-proconvertin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, plasminogen, fibrinogen, and platelet number were performed prior to drug administration (day 0). These tests were repeated 24 hours (day 1), 48 hours (day 2), and 7 days after treatment with l-asparaginase. Antithrombin-III concentrations were significantly lower in the dogs with lymphoma than in healthy dogs on days 0, 1, 2, and 7; however, with the exception of day 1, mean values remained within normal limits. There was also a difference between the 2 groups in prothrombin/proconvertin values on day 7 and in platelet number on day 2, with the lymphoma group having significantly shorter prothrombin/proconvertin time than healthy dogs, and the difference in platelet numbers being associated with increased counts in the healthy dogs. Data obtained from the healthy dogs and dogs with lymphoma for each coagulation test were pooled for each treatment day (0, 1, 2, and 7), and day-0 values for each coagulation test were compared with data obtained on days 1, 2, and 7. Antithrombin-III concentration on day 7 was significantly lower than on day 0, prothrombin/ proconvertin time on day 1 was significantly longer than on day 0, and fibrinogen concentrations on days 1 and 2 were significantly lower than on day 0. Evidence of clinical hemorrhage or thrombosis was not found in any dog subsequent to l-asparaginase administration. Results of this study suggest that although individual coagulation test results may be altered, a single dose of l-asparaginase does not clinically alter coagulation in either healthy dogs or dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research