Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of budesonide in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Animals—11 dogs (mean ± SD age, 5.7 ± 3.9 years; various breeds and body weights) with moderate or severe IBD.
Procedures—Each dog received a controlled-release formulation of budesonide (3 mg/m2, PO, q 24 h) for 30 days (first day of administration was day 1). The concentration of budesonide and its metabolite (16-α-hydroxyprednisolone) was measured via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine samples obtained on days 1 and 8 of treatment. On those days, plasma samples were obtained before the daily budesonide administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 7 hours after drug administration, whereas urine samples were obtained after collection of the last blood sample. A clinical evaluation was performed on the dogs before onset of drug administration and on days 20 and 30 after start of drug administration.
Results—The highest plasma concentration of budesonide and 16-α-hydroxyprednisolone on day 1 was detected at 1 hour and at 2 hours after drug administration, respectively. After standardization on the basis of specific gravity, the ratio between urinary concentrations of budesonide and 16-α-hydroxyprednisolone was 0.006 and 0.012 on days 1 and 8, respectively. The clinical response was adequate in 8 of 11 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Budesonide was rapidly absorbed and metabolized in dogs with IBD. The drug gradually accumulated, and there was an adequate therapeutic response and no adverse effects.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration to Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).
Animals—23 healthy adult Hermann's tortoises (15 males and 8 females).
Procedures—Cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg) was injected once in the subcutis of the neck region of Hermann's tortoises, and blood samples were obtained at predetermined time points. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a noncompartmental model. Plasma protein concentration was quantified, and the percentage of cefovecin bound to protein was estimated with a centrifugation technique.
Results—Cefovecin was absorbed rapidly, reaching maximum plasma concentrations between 35 minutes and 2 hours after administration, with the exception of 1 group, in which it was reached after 4 hours. The mean ± SD time to maximum concentration was 1.22 ± 1.14 hours; area under the concentration-time curve was 220.35 ± 36.18 h•μg/mL The mean protein-bound fraction of cefovecin ranged from 41.3% to 47.5%. No adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a single dose of cefovecin SC appeared to be well-tolerated in this population of tortoises. Results of pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the 2-week dosing interval suggested for dogs and cats cannot be considered effective in tortoises; however, further research is needed to determine therapeutic concentrations of the drug and appropriate dose ranges.