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- Author or Editor: Paola Gianella x
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Objective—To develop a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves.
Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—148 Piedmontese calves (38 calves in preliminary experiments; 83 diarrheic calves and 27 healthy control calves in the primary experiment).
Procedures—Physical examination was performed and a standard data collection form was completed for each calf. Blood samples were obtained and submitted for evaluation of acid-base balance, performance of a CBC, and measurement of electrolyte and total protein concentrations.
Results—Severe metabolic acidosis (extracellular base excess more negative than −10 mmol/L) was associated with abnormal mental status, delayed or absent suckle reflex, abnormal posture or gait, enophthalmos, and cold oral mucosal membranes. Clinical signs associated with severe metabolic acidosis were arranged into a grid to create a diagnostic diagram. Sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic diagram for the prediction of severe metabolic acidosis were 88% and 79%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the diagnostic diagram may aid differentiation between severe and nonsevere acidosis patterns as determined on the basis of clinical signs.
To determine the prevalence of nucleic acid from selected cardiotropic pathogens in endomyocardial biopsy samples from dogs with unexplained myocardial and rhythm disorders (UMRD) and compare prevalence with that for a group of control dogs with congenital heart disease (CHD).
47 client-owned dogs.
Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy was performed in dogs with UMRD (dilated cardiomyopathy [n = 25], atrioventricular block , and nonfamilial ventricular  and supraventricular arrhythmias ) or CHD (10) that required right ventricular catheterization. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically, and PCR assays were used for detection of nucleic acid from 12 pathogens.
197 biopsy samples were collected from dogs with UMRD (n = 172) or CHD (25). At least 1 pathogen was detected in 21 of 37 (57%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 41% to 71%) dogs with UMRD, and canine coronavirus was detected in 1 of 10 (10%; 95% CI, 2% to 40%) dogs with CHD. Dogs with UMRD were significantly more likely than dogs with CHD to have pathogens detected in biopsy samples (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 103.0). The most common pathogens in dogs with UMRD were canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus 2, and Bartonella spp. No pathogens were detected in available blood samples from dogs with pathogens detected in biopsy samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Detection of nucleic acids from selected cardiotropic pathogens in myocardial tissue from dogs with UMRD suggested a possible association between the 2. Further studies are needed to explore whether this association is causative or clinically important. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:1150–1160)