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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 2-month-old 12.0-kg (26.4-lb) sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated for a 1-week history of progressive forelimb lameness with no known history of trauma.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The cria had toe-touching lameness in the right forelimb with a firm swelling at the distal dorsomedial metacarpal region. Signs of pain were elicited on palpation of the swollen region. There was no associated wound or draining tract. Radiographic examination revealed soft tissue swelling and osteomyelitis of the distal portion of the third metacarpal bone with a possible medial cortical sequestrum.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The cria was hospitalized and treated with meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 72 h) and ceftiofur sodium administered SC (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], q 12 h for 8 days) and by means of regional limb perfusion (1.25 mg/kg [0.57 mg/lb], IV, q 48 h for 8 days). Lameness and swelling improved, and the cria was discharged from the hospital with meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO, q 72 h for 2 weeks) and ceftiofur crystalline free acid (1.5 mg/kg [0.68 mg/kg], SC, q 5 d for 2 weeks). At a recheck examination 17 days later, there was radiographic evidence of a well-defined 3.4 × 0.3-cm osseous sequestrum in the distal aspect of the affected third metacarpal bone. The owner declined further treatment and elected to monitor the cria at home. One year later, radiographic examination revealed nearly complete resolution of the sequestrum.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results for this patient suggested that osseous sequestra in some camelids may resolve following medical treatment without surgical intervention.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal findings in gross necropsy, histopathology, and ancillary test results from neonatal beef calves submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory.

Samples

This retrospective clinical case study was conducted by reviewing necropsy reports submitted between 2015 to 2020. Case inclusion criteria were animals had to be a bovine, 2 to 21 days of age, and a nondairy breed.

Procedures

Gross necropsy, histopathology, and laboratory test results were recorded. Identified lesions and abnormal test results were categorized based on body systems and infectious agent type. Age and system affected were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA and Bonferonni pairwise comparisons.

Results

Overall, 1,060 reports were reviewed and 95 met the inclusion criteria. Median age of enrolled calves was 9 days (range, 2 to 21). A total of 252 lesions were identified with a median of 3 lesions/calf (range, 0 to 7) and 2 different body systems involved/calf (range, 0 to 5). The most common disorders were classified as digestive (42.1% [106/252]), respiratory (12.7% [32/252]), and multisystemic (11.1% [28/252]). With respect to age and system affected, calves with neurologic lesions were significantly younger (mean age, 5.1 days) than calves with digestive lesions (mean age 9.6 days).

Clinical Relevance

These data suggest a high prevalence of infectious diseases, mainly digestive, respiratory and multisystemic in origin. These findings could help guide producers and veterinarians when assessing factors contributing to neonatal beef calf loss.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association