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  • Author or Editor: Pamela A. Spencer x
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SUMMARY

Age, breed, and gender distributions of 168 horses with umbilical hernia treated at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine were analyzed to determine risk factors for this disease. For the 3 breeds that constituted the largest proportion of hospital and case populations, Thoroughbred, Standardbred, and Quarter Horse, the overall ratio of females to males was 1.63. In a hospital population of the same age group, 0 to 48 months, the female to male ratio was 0.93. Compared with males, females were at significantly higher risk for umbilical hernia after adjustment for breed and age (odds ratio, 2.01; 99% confidence interval, 1.31 to 3.10; P = 0.00002). Of the 2 major breeds, Thoroughbreds were at greater risk than Standardbreds for umbilical hernia, after adjustment for gender and age (odds ratio, 1.80; 99% confidence interval, 1.10 to 2.95; P = 0.0020). The results provide information about a common congenital defect in horses that can be used for future genetic research.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 46 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis that were evaluated ultrasonographically were reviewed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the thrombus within the jugular vein was classified as noncavitating if it had uniform low to medium amplitude echoes, or as cavitating if it was heterogenous with anechoic to hypoechoic areas representing fluid or necrotic areas within the thrombus, and/or hyperechoic areas representing gas. Signs of pain on palpation of the affected vein (P < 0.001), heat over the vein (P = 0.001), and swelling of the vein (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with the ultrasonographic detection of a cavitating lesion. Ultrasonography also was useful for selecting a site for aspiration of a specimen for bacteriologic culturing and susceptibility testing.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A retrospective evaluation of 64 cases of suspected infectious arthritis in horses was undertaken to determine the relations among histopathologic findings in synovial membrane specimens, cytologic findings in synovial fluid samples, and bacterial culture results. Positive cultures were obtained from 55% of the joints, and 18 different bacterial organisms were cultured. Culturing of synovial fluid yielded bacterial growth more often than did culturing of synovial membrane. Histologic evaluation (h&e and Gram stain) of synovial membrane specimens provided little information to help distinguish infected from culture-negative joints. We do not advocate the routine use of closed synovial biopsy in suspected cases of equine septic arthritis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Four mares fed a low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate diet were used in a crossover design to evaluate the effects of dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation during daily low-intensity submaximal working conditions. Mares were fed the diet at 1.7 times the maintenance energy requirement for mature horses at work. The horses tolerated the diet well and had no clinical abnormalities. Resting venous blood bicarbonate (HCO3), standard HCO3, and base excess (be) concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) increased with NaHCO3 supplementation, but no significant changes in resting venous blood pH or carbon dioxide tension (Pco 2) were recorded.

Venous blood HCO3, standard HCO3, be, hemoglobin, and heart rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased and plasma lactate concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the control horses and in the horses given the NaHCO3 supplement during low-intensity submaximal exercise. There were no significant changes in venous blood pH, Pco 2, or plasma protein concentration with exercise. Venous blood HCO3, standard HCO3, and be concentrations were significantly (P < 0 05) greater during submaximal exercise in horses given the NaHCO3 supplement. There were no significant differences in plasma lactate or total protein concentrations, blood pH, Pco 2, or hemoglobin concentration between the 2 groups during exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of a potent new histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, BMY-25368, were studied on gastric acid secretion in 5 foals from which food was withheld. Doses of 0.02, 0.11, 0.22, and 1.10 mg/kg of body weight were administered im in a randomly assigned treatment sequence. Following BMY-25368 administration, hydrogen ion concentration was decreased and mean pH was higher than baseline values in a dose-response pattern. At the 0.22 and 1.10 mg/kg doses, the high pH was sustained for > 4 hours. The BMY-25368 thus may be useful for treating gastric ulcer disease in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 32 cattle treated for umbilical abnormalities that had undergone ultrasonographic examination of the umbilicus followed by umbilical resection or postmortem examination were reviewed. Thirty of the cattle were between 6 and 240 days old (mean, 73 days); the remaining 2 cattle were a 3-year-old bull and a 5-year-old cow. Thirty (94%) animals had external evidence of infection associated with the umbilicus. Two calves did not have external signs of infection; 1 had an abscess of the urachus and the other was found to be normal.

Two-dimensional real-time ultrasonography was used to identify abnormal umbilical cord remnants. Ultrasonographic results were most reliable for the urachus, and the urachus was the most commonly affected internal umbilical cord remnant. Statistical agreement between ultrasonographic and physical (surgical or postmortem) findings was good to excellent for all umbilical structures. Intra-abdominal adhesions were found at surgery in 47% of animals with umbilical abnormalities; however, adhesions were not detected ultrasonographically.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The effects of furosemide on the racing times of 79 horses without exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (eiph) and 52 horses with eiph were investigated. Racing times were adjusted to 1-mile equivalent racing times by 2 speed handicapping methods, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust actual racing times by winning time and distance for each race. All 3 methods of determining racing time indicated that geldings without eiph had significantly faster racing times (P < 0.05) when given furosemide before racing than when furosemide was not given before racing. Females and colts without eiph were determined to have faster racing times when furosemide was given before racing, but the difference was not significant. Geldings with eiph had significantly faster racing times (P = 0.0231) when given furosemide before racing, as determined by one of the speed handicapping methods. There was a strong correlation (range 0.9314 to 0.9751) between the 1-mile equivalent racing times, as determined by the 2 speed handicapping methods for horses with and without eiph. Furosemide failed to prevent the development of eiph in many horses that were previously considered to be eiph-negative. When given furosemide, 62 (25.3%) of 235 eiph-negative horses were eiph-positive after racing. Furosemide had questionable efficacy for prevention of eiph in known eiph-positive horses. Thirty-two (61.5%) of 52 eiph-positive horses given furosemide before a race remained eiph-positive after that race.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research