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Medical records of 57 horses admitted between 1980 and 1991 because of basal sesamoidean fractures were evaluated. Radiographic measurements of fragment size and fracture characteristics were recorded to determine their relationship to outcome. A successful outcome was assessed on the basis of the ability to return to racing, ability to race more than one time, and ability to finish first, second, or third. Any change in racing class also was assessed.

There was a significant (P < 0.001) overrepresentation of Thoroughbreds, compared with other breeds in the hospital population. Fractures of the forelimbs accounted for 50 of the 57 fractures, and the right front medial sesamoid was affected significantly (P < 0.0001) more frequently than other proximal sesamoids.

Fifty-nine percent of the horses returned to race at least 1 time regardless of treatment, and 41% finished first, second, or third. Horses with smaller fragments (shorter dorsopalmar length) tended to do better than horses with larger fragments. Horses without comminuted fractures tended to do better than horses with comminuted fractures, and horses with fragments only mildly (< 3 mm) displaced had significantly (P < 0.05) better outcomes than did horses with severe displacement of fragments. Only 19% of the horses with moderate (> 3 mm) displacement of fragments raced more than once, whereas 63% of horses with mild displacement of fragments returned to race more than once.

Seventy-three percent of the horses that had the fragment removed surgically returned to race, and 57% dropped in class. Only 48% of the horses that did not have the fragment removed returned to race, and 87% dropped in class. Mean time for return to racing was 8.6 months for horses that had the fragment removed, and 6.5 months for those that did not.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


An elisa containing lipoarabinomannan (lam) antigen was used to detect antibodies in milk and serum for diagnosis of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. In experiment 1, milk and serum samples were obtained from 25 cows, and subjected to lam elisa testing immediately, and after 1 year of storage at −70 C. Milk samples, with and without a commonly used chemical preservative, were tested. There was no significant difference in lam elisa results between fresh and frozen samples or between preserved and unpreserved milk samples. In experiment 2, milk samples were collected daily from 30 cows over a 14-day period. The day-to-day coefficient of variation was 0.19 for milk lam elisa and was 0.15 for serum lam elisa, with no statistically significant time effect detected. In experiment 3, single milk, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 764 cows. The fecal samples were cultured for M paratuberculosis to identify infected cows, and the serum and milk samples were subjected to lam elisa testing. Results were compared, using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. The milk lam elisa had specificity (± 95% confidence limits) of 87 ± 8.1% when the cutoff was set at 50% sensitivity, and specificity of 83 ± 9.1% when sensitivity was set at 60%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 ± 0.03 for the milk elisa and 0.75 ± 0.02 for the serum elisa. In this population of cattle, the milk lam elisa had comparable accuracy to serum lam elisa, although the milk lam elisa was slightly less reproducible (higher coefficient of variation).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research