Objective—To evaluate the association between subjective
lameness grades and kinetic gait parameters
and assess the variability in kinetic parameters in
horses with experimentally induced forelimb lameness.
Procedures—Forelimb lameness was induced in
each horse via injection of lipopolysaccharide into 1
metacarpophalangeal joint (40 experimental trials).
Subjective lameness grading and 13 kinetic gait parameters
(force plate analysis) were assessed before
(baseline) and at 12, 18, and 24 hours after
lipopolysaccharide injection. While horses were trotting,
kinetic gait analysis was performed for 8 valid
repetitions at each time point. Repeated-measures
analyses were performed with 8 repetitions for each
kinetic parameter as the outcome, and lameness
grades, time points after lipopolysaccharide injection,
and repetition order as explanatory variables.
Sensitivity and specificity of kinetic parameters for
classification of horses as sound or lame (in relation
to subjective lameness scores) were calculated.
Between- and within-horse variabilities of the 13
kinetic parameters were assessed by calculation of
coefficients of variation.
Results—Subjective lameness grades were significantly
associated with most of the kinetic parameters.
Vertical force peak and impulse had the lowest
between- and within-horse coefficients of variation
and the highest correlations with subjective lameness
grade. Vertical force peak had the highest sensitivity
and specificity for lameness classification. Vertical
force peak and impulse were significantly decreased
even in horses with mild or unobservable lameness.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the
kinetic gait parameters, vertical force peak and
impulse had the best potential to reflect lameness
severity and identify subclinical forelimb gait abnormalities.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1805–1815)
OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine.
PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped. In 2014, snout wipe samples were collected from swine on arrival at 9 selected fairs in Indiana (n = 5) and Ohio (4) and tested for the presence of IAV. Also at fair arrival, swine exhibitors completed a survey regarding swine management practices.
RESULTS Contrary to the total swine population, the exhibition swine population was heavily concentrated in Indiana and Ohio. Many swine exhibitors reported attending multiple exhibitions within a season (median number, 2; range, 0 to 50), with exhibited swine often returned to their farm of origin. Rearing of commercial and exhibition swine on the same premises was reported by 13.3% (56/422) of exhibitors. Hosting an on-farm open house or sale was associated with an increased odds of IAV detection in snout wipe samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exhibition swine population was highly variable and differed from the commercial swine population in terms of pig density across geographic locations, population integrity, and on-farm management practices. Exhibition swine may be important in IAV transmission, and identified biosecurity deficiencies may have important public and animal health consequences.
Objective—To compare the iridocorneal angle (ICA) and angle opening distance (AOD) in dogs with cataractous and noncataractous lenses; evaluate cataractous eyes ultrasono-graphically for association of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) with the ICA, AOD, and postoperative echogenic anterior chamber debris; and evaluate intraobserver reliability associated with ICA and AOD measurements.
Animals—56 dogs with 102 cataracts, and 23 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed on 102 eyes of 56 dogs before and after cataract surgery and on 46 nondilated and dilated eyes of 23 clinically normal dogs. Cataract stage, ICA, AOD, and association with POH were assessed.
Results—Cataract stage and ICA or AOD were not significantly associated; however, ICA and AOD typically decreased with increasing cataract maturity. Before and after pupillary dilation, AODs were significantly smaller in cataractous eyes than in noncataractous eyes. Before surgery, ICA and AOD in eyes without pupillary dilation were significantly associated with POH. At > 13°, odds of developing POH increased by 11% for each degree increase in the ICA. Postoperative anterior chamber debris was not associated with POH. Coefficient of variation for repeated measurements was 10% for the ICA and 9.5% for the AOD, suggesting good intraobserver reliability.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, dogs with larger ICA and AOD measurements before surgery were at greater risk of developing POH. This information may be useful for future studies to determine whether preventative treatment for POH administered prior to surgery may be beneficial.
Objective—To characterize the process by which owners search for lost cats and identify factors associated with time to recovery.
Sample Population—Owners of 138 cats lost in Montgomery County, Ohio, between June 1 and September 30, 2005.
Procedures—A telephone survey was conducted.
Results—73 of the 138 (53%) cats were recovered; median time to recovery was 5 days (range, 0.5 to 81 days). Most cats (48 [66%]) that were recovered returned home on their own or were found in the neighborhood (5 [7%]); most other cats were recovered through posting of neighborhood signs (8 [11%]) or calling or visiting an animal agency (5 [7%]). The highest success rate for any of the search methods that were used was only 12% (posting neighborhood signs). Only 26 of the 138 (19%) cats had some type of identification at the time they were lost (ie, identification tag, rabies tag, or microchip). Owners allowed 82 (59%) cats to spend at least some time outdoors. The percentage of sexually intact cats recovered by their owners (4/16 [25%]) was significantly lower than the percentage of neutered cats recovered (69/122 [57%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the percentage of lost cats recovered by their owners is low, possibly in part because of the lack of use of traditional identification methods and the general acceptance that cats may roam. Veterinarians can help educate owners about the importance of identification and the need to keep cats indoors.
Objective—To characterize the process by which owners search for lost dogs and identify factors associated with time to recovery.
Sample Population—Owners of 187 dogs lost in Montgomery County, Ohio, between June 1 and September 30, 2005.
Procedures—A telephone survey was conducted.
Results—132 of the 187 (71%) dogs were recovered; median time to recovery was 2 days (range, 0.5 to 21 days). Dogs were recovered primarily through a call or visit to an animal agency (46 [34.8%]), a dog license tag (24 [18.2%]), and posting of neighborhood signs (20 [15.2%]). Eighty-nine (48%) dogs had some type of identification at the time they were lost (ie, identification tag, dog license tag, rabies tag, or microchip). Owners had a higher likelihood of recovery when they called an animal agency (hazard ratio, 2.1), visited an animal agency (1.8), and posted neighborhood signs. Dogs that were wearing a dog license tag also had a higher likelihood of recovery (hazard ratio, 1.6). Owners were less likely to recover their dogs if they believed their dogs were stolen (hazard ratio, 0.3).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that various factors are associated with the likelihood that owners will recover a lost dog. Both animal agencies and veterinarians can play a role in educating dog owners on the importance of identification tags, licensing, and microchips and can help to emphasize the importance of having a search plan in case a dog is lost.
Objective—To estimate the association between ceftiofur use and the isolation of Escherichia coli with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility from fecal samples of dairy cow populations.
Animals—1,266 dairy cows on 18 farms in Ohio.
Procedures—Individual fecal samples from all cows in the study herds were tested for Escherichia coli with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility. Herd antimicrobial use policy and antimicrobial treatment records were also obtained. Plasmid DNA from these isolates was tested for the presence of the AmpC β-lactamase gene (blaCMY-2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations to a standard panel of 16 antimicrobial drugs were determined by use of a broth microdilution system.
Results—Herds for which ceftiofur use was reported were more likely to have cows from which reducedsusceptibility E coli was isolated than herds that did not report ceftiofur use (odds ratio, 25.0). However, at the individual cow level, no association was found between recent ceftiofur treatment and isolation of reduced-susceptibility E coli (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01). No observed linear relationship was found between the percentage of cows from which E coli with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility was isolated and the percentage of cows in the herd recently treated with ceftiofur.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our observation of a herd-level but not an individual cow-level association between ceftiofur use and isolation of E coli with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility from fecal samples suggests that interventions to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural animals will be most effective at the herd level.
Objective—To evaluate the in vitro activity of an ear rinse (ER) containing tromethamine, EDTA, and benzyl alcohol on bacterial pathogens from dogs with otitis.
Sample Population—Organisms were collected from ear swab specimens from the external and middle ear and included Staphylococcus spp (n = 11; Staphylococcus intermedius  and Staphylococcus spp ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), Proteus spp (5), β-hemolytic streptococcus (11), and 1 control strain of each organism.
Procedures—3 test solutions were evaluated including EDTA, tromethamine, and benzyl alcohol (ER); EDTA and tromethamine (ER without benzyl alcohol [ER – BA]); and purified water. Ten-milliliter aliquots of each test solution were transferred into 36 tubes and inoculated with one of the organisms. Samples were retrieved from each tube at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, transferred to Petri dishes, mixed with soybeancasein digest agar, and incubated. After incubation, plates were examined for growth, and the number of colonies was expressed as CFU per milliliter.
Results—ER significantly decreased bacterial growth in vitro of P aeruginosa and β-hemolytic streptococcal organisms within 15 minutes, Proteus spp within 30 minutes, and Staphylococcus spp within 60 minutes. Comparatively, the presence of benzyl alcohol in ER significantly decreased bacterial growth of β-hemolytic streptococcus and Proteus spp.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of results of this study, future studies should be performed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of ER alone as a treatment for otic infections caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus, P aeruginosa, and Proteus spp and of ER combined with an antimicrobial agent for otic infections caused by Staphylococcus spp.
Objective—To assess analgesia, inflammation, potency, and duration of action associated with intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), mepivacaine hydrochloride, or both in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of horses with experimentally induced acute synovitis.
Procedures—Both forelimbs of each horse were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 times. After the first LPS injection, 1 forelimb of each horse was treated with intra-articular injection of mepivacaine (80 mg; n = 6), TA (9 mg; 6), or mepivacaine with TA (same doses of each; 6) 12 hours after the initial LPS injection. Contralateral limbs served as control limbs. Joint pain was assessed via lameness score and measurements of vertical force peak and pain-free range of motion of the MCP joint. Periarticular edema was evaluated. Degree of synovial inflammation was determined via synovial fluid analysis for WBC count and total protein concentration. Samples of plasma and synovial fluid were analyzed for TA and mepivacaine concentrations.
Results—Each injection of LPS induced lameness and joint inflammation. Mepivacaine effectively eliminated lameness within 45 minutes after injection, regardless of whether TA was also administered, whereas TA reduced lameness, edema, and concentration of synovial fluid protein after the second LPS injection, regardless of whether mepivacaine was also injected. Treatment with TA also induced higher WBC counts and mepivacaine concentrations in synovial fluid, compared with results for mepivacaine alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested TA is a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication for acute synovitis in horses and that simultaneous administration of mepivacaine does not alter the potency or duration of action of TA.
Objective—To characterize the process by which people who find lost pets search for the owners.
Sample Population—188 individuals who found a lost pet in Dayton, Ohio, between March 1 and June 30, 2006.
Procedures—Potential participants were identified as a result of contact with a local animal agency or placement of an advertisement in the local newspaper. A telephone survey was conducted to identify methods participants used to find the pets' owners.
Results—156 of 188 (83%) individuals completed the survey. Fifty-nine of the 156 (38%) pets were reunited with their owners; median time to reunification was 2 days (range, 0.5 to 45 days). Only 1 (3%) cat owner was found, compared with 58 (46%) dog owners. Pet owners were found as a result of information provided by an animal agency (25%), placement of a newspaper advertisement (24%), walking the neighborhood (19%), signs in the neighborhood (15%), information on a pet tag (10%), and other methods (7%). Most finders (87%) considered it extremely important to find the owner, yet only 13 (8%) initially surrendered the found pet to an animal agency. The primary reason people did not surrender found pets was fear of euthanasia (57%). Only 97 (62%) individuals were aware they could run a found-pet advertisement in the newspaper at no charge, and only 1 person who was unaware of the no-charge policy placed an advertisement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians and shelters can help educate people who find lost pets about methods to search for the pets' owners.
Objective—To evaluate use of kinetic gait analysis for detection, quantification, and differentiation of hind limb lameness and spinal ataxia in horses.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Procedures—Kinetic gait analysis with a force plate was performed for 12 clinically normal horses, 12 horses with hind limb lameness, and 12 horses with spinal ataxia. Kinetic variables were compared among groups, correlated to subjective grading, and used to build predictive models to assess the accuracy of discrimination.
Results—Subsets of kinetic variables were characteristically altered in ataxic and lame gaits. Ataxic horses had significantly increased lateral force peak and variation in vertical force peaks in both hind limbs. Lame horses had significantly decreased vertical force peak and increased variation in vertical force peaks only in the lame hind limb. These variables were used to differentiate between spinal ataxia and hind limb lameness with excellent accuracy. There were significant correlations between a subset of kinetic variables and subjective lameness and neurologic grades.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Kinetic gait variables, specifically lateral force peak and the variation in vertical force, can be used to support the differential diagnosis between spinal ataxia and hind limb lameness in horses. Kinetic gait analysis may also be applied for quantification of equine hind limb gait abnormalities as well as confirming lack of lameness and ataxia in soundness examinations.