Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Page Yaxley x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old sexually intact female mixed-breed dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital approximately 5 hours after ingestion of an unknown amount of over-the-counter topical hair growth promoter containing 5% minoxidil foam. Vomiting and signs of lethargy were reported by the owner, and physical examination revealed tachycardia and hypotension. No treatments were performed, and the dog was transferred to a veterinary referral hospital for management of suspected minoxidil toxicosis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS On arrival at the referral hospital, the dog was tachycardic (heart rate, 200 to 220 beats/min) and hypotensive (systolic arterial blood pressure, 70 mm Hg). Electrocardiography revealed a regular, narrow-complex tachycardia with no evidence of ventricular ectopy.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Hypotension was effectively managed with a constant rate infusion of dopamine hydrochloride (12.5 μg/kg/min [5.7 μg/lb/min], IV). Once normotensive, the dog remained tachycardic and a constant rate infusion of esmolol hydrochloride (40 μg/kg/min [18.2 μg/lb/min], IV) was initiated for heart rate control. A lipid emulsion was administered IV as a potential antidote for the toxic effects of the lipophilic minoxidil, with an initial bolus of 1.5 mL/kg (0.7 mL/lb) given over 15 minutes followed by a continuous rate infusion at 0.25 mL/kg/min (0.11 mL/lb/min) for 60 minutes. While hospitalized, the dog also received maropitant citrate and ondansetron. Resolution of clinical signs was achieved with treatment, and the dog was discharged from the hospital 36 hours after admission. Four days later, the owner reported that the dog had made a full recovery and had returned to its typical behavior and activity level at home.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of successful clinical management of accidental minoxidil toxicosis in a dog.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate local temperature differences directly over and adjacent to small intestinal foreign body obstruction (FBO) using infrared thermography (IRT) in dogs.

ANIMALS

49 client-owned dogs were initially enrolled.

METHODS

In a prospective, clinical observational study, IRT was utilized to compare median small intestinal (SI) surface temperature differences at the site of FBO and segments oral and aboral before and after surgical resolution from April 24, 2019, to July 19, 2020. These differences were evaluated for correlation with canine acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation fast (APPLEfast) scoring, lactate, foreign body material (hard vs soft), and blood pressure.

RESULTS

There was not a significant surface temperature difference between SI segments at the site of FBO, oral or aboral. After resolution of obstruction, there was a significant decrease in median temperature directly over the FBO (2.4 °C; IQR, −2.55 to 10.6 °C; P = .0043). A decrease in surface temperature of the oral SI segment was appreciated with FBO due to hard material (−1.7 °C; IQR, −5.2 to 3.4 °C), whereas soft material had an increase in SI surface temperature oral to the FBO (+1.1 °C; IQR, 0.3 to 3.2 °C). This difference did not achieve significance (P = .08; Z = 1.75). No correlation was found between APPLEfast, lactate, or blood pressure and SI segment temperatures.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IRT may be useful diagnostic modality to identify changes in small intestinal surface temperature relating to FBO. Further evaluation is warranted to determine if IRT may be a clinically useful to evaluate intestinal perfusion.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

OBJECTIVE

To assess the safety and efficacy of the platelet-like nanoparticle (PLN), and to assess its safety in repeated administration.

ANIMALS

6 purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES

The PLN was administered IV at 3 different doses using a randomized crossover design. Each dog received a full dose of 8 X 1010 particles/10 kg, half dose, and 10 times the dose, with a 14-day washout period between doses. Biochemical, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen analyses were performed at baseline and 96 hours postinfusion. A CBC, kaolin-activated thromboelastography, platelet function assay closure time, and buccal mucosal bleeding time were performed at baseline and 1, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postinfusion.

RESULTS

No significant changes were observed over time in the thromboelastography parameters, closure time, and buccal mucosal bleeding time. After the administration of the half dose, hematocrit levels decreased significantly at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 96 hours, with all values within the reference range. The platelet count was decreased significantly at hours 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 after administration of the half dose, with values less than the reference range at all hours but hour 72. No significant changes in serum biochemistry, coagulation panel, and fibrinogen were observed for all doses. No adverse events were noted during the first infusion. Three dogs experienced transient sedation and nausea after repeat infusion.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The PLN resulted in a dilution of hematocrit and platelets, and did not significantly alter hemostasis negatively. The safety of repeated doses should be investigated further in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the success rates for urethral catheterization in clinical patients using the traditional and 2-catheter techniques when placed by personnel of all experience levels.

ANIMALS

38 female cats and dogs weighing less than 10 kg were prospectively enrolled.

METHODS

Enrolled animals were randomized to have a urethral catheter placed by the traditional technique or the 2-catheter method under sedation or general anesthesia. Any qualified hospital personnel of any experience level were allowed to place the catheter. If after 5 minutes the animal was not successfully catheterized, the alternate method was performed. The previous experience of the catheter placer, animal signalment, animal condition that necessitated catheter placement, time to successful placement, and which technique was successful was recorded.

RESULTS

The 2-catheter technique was more successful than the traditional method (60.5% and 34.2%, respectively) for urethral catheterization when used by a variety of hospital personnel. The 2-catheter technique was successful in 63.3% of dogs and 66.6% of cats, while the traditional method was successful in 36.6% of dogs and 33.3% of cats. Eight of 9 (88.9%) novice catheter placers that placed their first urinary catheter in this study succeeded with the 2-catheter technique and only 1 was successful with the traditional method.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The 2-catheter technique has a higher rate of success for placement of female urinary catheters in small patients that are unable to have concurrent digital palpation. This technique may also be helpful in the inexperienced catheter placer population to aid in guidance into the urethral papilla.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Thromboelastography (TEG) is a whole blood assay that yields global assessment of hemostasis, as it evaluates clot time, strength, and kinematics of clot formation and lysis. The main objective was to describe preoperative TEG findings in dogs that had an adrenalectomy performed and, secondarily, to describe TEG findings in the dogs with or without hyperadrenocorticism (HAC).

ANIMALS

30 dogs that had preoperative TEG and adrenalectomy performed.

METHODS

Medical records between 2018 and 2022 were reviewed. Signalment, diagnostic data, and perioperative treatment were abstracted.

RESULTS

53% (16/30) of the dogs were hypercoagulable, and none were hypocoagulable. Based on histopathology, 6 of 9 dogs with adenocarcinoma were hypercoagulable, 4 of 8 with pheochromocytoma were hypercoagulable, and 6 of 10 with adenoma were hypercoagulable. None of the 3 dogs with other histopathologic diagnoses or combinations of diagnoses (adrenocortical hyperplasia, poorly differentiated sarcoma, and both adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma) were hypercoagulable. Of the 14 dogs tested preoperatively for HAC, 4 of 8 HAC dogs were hypercoagulable and 2 of 6 non-HAC dogs were hypercoagulable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report describes for the first time TEG findings for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and suggests that the majority of dogs with adrenal neoplasia are hypercoagulable based on TEG results.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the outcome of dietary management of canine noninfectious acute colitis with or without concurrent oral administration of metronidazole using a randomized controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS

59 client-owned dogs with noninfectious acute colitis.

PROCEDURES

Dogs with acute noninfectious colitis were enrolled in a 30-day diet trial after exclusion of parasitic infectious etiologies (fecal centrifugation floatation, Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigen testing) and systemic disease (CBC, biochemistry, urinalysis). Dogs were randomized into 3 placebo-controlled groups: group 1, easily digestible diet + placebo tablet; group 2, easily digestible diet + metronidazole tablet; and group 3, psyllium-enhanced easily digestible diet + placebo tablet. Dogs were evaluated serially using fecal scoring for time to remission, average fecal score, relapse after remission, and dysbiosis index.

RESULTS

Median remission time was significantly different among the 3 groups (P < .01) with median times of 5 days (range, 4 to 10) for group 1, 8.5 days (range, 7 to 12) for group 2, and 5 days (range, 3 to 6) for group 3. Metronidazole addition affected the fecal dysbiosis index negatively at days 7 to 10. No adverse effects or complications were noted throughout the study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For canine noninfectious acute colitis, dietary management with an easily digestible diet with or without psyllium enhancement proved a superior management strategy compared to metronidazole. The omission of metronidazole reduced the adverse impact significantly on intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal clinical trials are necessary to compare the long-term response, stability, and complications associated with dietary management alone versus combined dietary and antimicrobial therapy for canine acute colitis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association