To survey cattle producers and veterinarians about the use of analgesia on US cattle operations.
1,187 members of the following database, electronic mailing lists, and social media groups: FarmProgress master file, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Academy of Veterinary Consultants, National Milk Producers Federation Farm Evaluators, Dairy Moms Facebook group, and Dairy Girl Network Facebook group.
An online survey was developed to gather information about the frequency of local and systemic analgesia use for common painful procedures and diseases in cattle < 2, 2 to 12, and > 12 months old. Respondents also rated their extent of agreement with each of 10 statements related to pain management in cattle. The survey was available from June 11 to August 10, 2018. Descriptive data were generated. Logistic regression was used for comparisons among cattle age groups and respondents on the basis of their industry role.
In general, frequency of analgesia use increased as cattle age increased, regardless of the procedure or disease. The odds of analgesia use were lower for men, compared with women, and greater for veterinarians, compared with producers. Many respondents indicated they were cognizant of the benefits of analgesia use in cattle but perceived federal regulations and drug costs as impediments to the implementation of pain mitigation protocols on cattle operations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results provided insight into current perceptions and use of analgesia in cattle, which can be used to guide implementation of pain mitigation protocols on US beef and dairy cattle operations.
OBJECTIVE To identify milk component alterations that might be useful for detecting cows with rumen indigestion.
DESIGN Prospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 23 Holstein cows with rumen indigestion (cases) and 33 healthy cohorts (controls) from 1 herd.
PROCEDURES Cases were defined as cows between 30 and 300 days postpartum with a > 10% decrease in milk yield for 2 consecutive milkings or > 20% decrease in milk yield from the 10-day rolling mean during any milking, abnormally decreased rumen motility, and no other abnormalities. Each case was matched with 2 healthy cows (controls) on the basis of pen, parity, days postpartum, and mean milk yield. Some cows were controls for multiple cases. All cows underwent a physical examination and collection of a rumen fluid sample for pH measurement at study enrollment. Individual-cow milk yield and milk component data were obtained for the 16 milkings before and after study enrollment. Rumen motility and pH and milk components were compared between cases and controls.
RESULTS Rumen motility for cases was decreased from that of controls. Cases had an abrupt increase in milk fat percentage and the milk fat-to-lactose ratio during the 2 milkings immediately before diagnosis of rumen indigestion. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that a 10% increase in the milk fat-to-lactose ratio had the highest combined sensitivity (57%) and specificity (85%) for identifying cows with rumen indigestion.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a positive deviation in the milk fat-to-lactose ratio might be useful for identifying cows with rumen indigestion.
Objective—To determine the association of CBC variables and castration status at the time of arrival at a research facility with the risk of development of bovine respiratory disease (BRD).
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—1,179 crossbred beef bull (n = 588) and steer (591) calves included in 4 experiments at 2 University of Arkansas research facilities.
Procedures—Calves underwent processing and treatments in accordance with the experiment in which they were enrolled. Castration status and values of CBC variables were determined at the time of arrival at the facilities. Calves were monitored to detect signs of BRD during a 42-day period.
Results—The areas under the receiving operator characteristic curves for CBC variables with significant contrast test results ranged from 0.51 (neutrophil count) to 0.67 (eosinophil count), indicating they were limited predictors of BRD in calves. The only CBC variables that had significant associations with BRD in calves as determined via multivariable logistic regression analysis were eosinophil and RBC counts. The odds of BRD for bulls were 3.32 times the odds of BRD for steers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated that low eosinophil and high RBC counts in blood samples may be useful for identification of calves with a high risk for development of BRD. Further research may be warranted to validate these variables for prediction of BRD in calves. Calves that were bulls at the time of arrival had a higher risk of BRD, versus calves that were steers at that time.