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  • Author or Editor: Pablo Espinosa x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify the prevalence of fragmentation of the proximal tubercle of the talus (FPTT) in a hospital population of horses, characterize the anatomic features of the affected area and fragments, and describe clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome for horses with FPTT.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—9 horses with FPTT.

Procedures—2,543 radiographic views of the tarsal region of 1,526 horses that were evaluated between June 2004 and December 2010 were reviewed. Medical case records for horses with detectable FPTT were retrieved, and signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, treatment, and outcome were recorded for assessment.

Results—9 horses (median age, 5 years; age range, 1 to 12 years) with FPTT were identified. Seven horses were warmbloods. Diagnosis was made on the basis of radiographic findings, occasionally along with results of ultrasonography and CT. The only horse that was lame in the affected limb had a history of a prior traumatic event and resultant lateral tibial malleolus fracture. One horse underwent arthroscopy, but fragments were not found and were presumed to be extra-articular. Outcome was available for 7 horses; mean ± SD duration of stable radiographic and clinical examination findings was 3 ± 1 years (range, 1 to 4 years).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—FPTT appeared to occur more frequently in warmbloods and was not usually associated with lameness. Affected horses remained clinically and radiographically stable over time. These data have provided some information regarding the importance of FPTT for practitioners who perform radiographic screenings during prepurchase examinations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) have been studied to treat many common orthopedic injuries in horses. However, there is limited information available on when and how to use this treatment effectively. The aim of this retrospective study is to report case features, treatment protocols, and clinical outcomes in horses treated with MSCs.

ANIMALS

65 horses presenting with tendinous, ligamentous, and articular injuries, and treated with MSCs prepared by a single laboratory between 2016 and 2019. Outcome information was available for 26 horses.

PROCEDURES

Signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, treatment protocol features (prior and concurrent therapies, cell origin, dose, application site and number), and effective outcomes were analyzed. The analysis was focused on comparing the effect of different MSC treatment protocols (eg, autologous vs allogeneic) on outcome rather than the effectiveness of MSC treatment.

RESULTS

MSC treatment resulted in 59.1% (clinical lameness) to 76.9% (imaging structure) improvement in horses with diverse ages, breeds, sex, and lesions. The use of other therapeutic methods before MSC application (eg, anti-inflammatories, shockwave, laser, icing, resting, bandage and stack wrap, intra-articular injections, and/or surgical debridement) was shown to be statistically more effective compared to MSCs used as the primary therapeutic procedure (P < .05). Autologous versus allogeneic treatment outcomes were not significantly different.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A prospective MSC treatment study with standardization and controls to evaluate the different features of MSC treatment protocols is needed. The various case presentations and treatment protocols evaluated can be used to inform practitioners who are currently using MSCs in clinical practice.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the value of F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging the tarsus and proximal metatarsus and compare it with CT and lameness evaluation.

ANIMALS

25 horses with lameness localized to the tarsal and proximal metatarsal regions that underwent 18F-NaF PET/CT between 2016 and 2021.

METHODS

18F-NaF PET and CT images were retrospectively independently evaluated by 3 observers. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were used to characterize 18F-NaF uptake. Correlation between PET and CT findings with subjective and objective maximum (Max-D) and minimum pelvic height lameness data was estimated.

RESULTS

The inter-observer Kappa-weighted value (κ) was higher for PET (κ = 0.66) than CT (κ = 0.6). CT and PET scores were fairly correlated (R = 0.49; P < 0.05). PET SUVratio (SUV of the main lesion/SUV talus) had the highest correlation with Max-D (R = 0.71; P < .05). PET and CT scores for the plantar region were significantly higher in Quarter Horses (P < .05) and showed consistently higher correlation with objective lameness data (CT plantar grade - Max-D [R = 0.6; P < .05], PET plantar grade - Max-D [R = 0.47; P = .04]) than other regions of the distal tarsal joints. Three Warmbloods presented marked uptake at the medial cochlea of the distal tibia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

PET had a moderate correlation with CT for assessment of tarsal lesions. The degree of PET uptake can help differentiate active versus inactive lesions. Specific location of the uptake is important in determining clinical relevance.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association