Vascular patterns to thoracic limbs, thorax, and neck muscles were studied in 10 dogs (20 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify vascular pedicles. Size and location of pedicles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cutaneous trunci, latissimus dorsi, sternothyroideus, sternohyoideus, deep pectoral, anconeus, ulnaris lateralis, and ulnar head of flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were identified as suitable for transfer. The cranial trapezius, caudal omotransversarius, cleidobrachialis, and caudal sternocephalicus muscles also had potential for use. Other muscles, because of inaccessibility or unfavorable vascular pattern, were not suitable candidates for transfer.
Objective—To develop a model of low urethral pressure
incontinence and compare the relative contributions
of the pudendal and hypogastric nerves with
urethral function by performing selective neurectomy
and ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
Animals—19 healthy Foxhounds.
Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups. The
first group (10 dogs) underwent bilateral hypogastric
neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy and subsequent
bilateral pudendal neurectomy. The second group (9
dogs) underwent bilateral pudendal neurectomy and
subsequent hypogastric neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy.
Urethral pressure profilometry and leak
point pressure (LPP) tests were performed before
and after each neurectomy.
Results—Before surgery, mean ± SD LPP and maximal
urethral closure pressure (MUCP) in all dogs were
169.3 ± 24.9 cm H2O and 108.3 ± 19.3 cm H2O,
respectively; these values decreased to 92.3 ± 27 cm
H2O and 60.7 ± 20.0 cm H2O, respectively, after both
selective neurectomy surgeries. There was a progressive
decline of LPP after each neurectomy; however,
MUCP decreased only after pudendal neurectomy.
Fifteen dogs had mild clinical signs of urinary incontinence.
All dogs appeared to have normal bladder
function as indicated by posturing to void and consciously
voiding a full stream of urine. Urinary tract
infection did not develop in any dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypogastric
and pudendal neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy
caused a maximum decrease in LPP, whereas pudendal
neurectomy caused a maximum decrease in
Impact on Human Medicine—This model may be
useful for evaluation of treatments for improving urinary
control in postmenopausal women. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:695–699)